Exploring the Factors Affecting the Adoption of Environmentally Friendly Vehicles

친환경 자동차의 수용에 영향을 미치는 요인에 관한 탐색

  • 노민정 (경희대학교 경영대학 빅데이터 연구센터) ;
  • 이한석 (상명대학교 글로벌경영학과)
  • Received : 2018.05.15
  • Accepted : 2018.06.27
  • Published : 2018.07.28


This study investigates the factors that induce the early adoption of environmentally friendly vehicles. We measure the affective, cognitive, and behavioral factors influencing the early adoption intentions of car owners in three countries (the US, Germany, and Japan). We find that affective and cognitive factors are significant, but behavioral factors are only partially significant. Specifically, eco-centric values and knowledge about green technology are significant in explaining early adoption intent. However, of the behavioral factors, usage context is significant, whereas commute distance is not significant in explaining early adoption intent. Finally, between-country differences indicate that any policy to increase the adoption of environmentally friendly vehicles should be fine-tuned for each country.


Green Vehicle;Environmentally Friendly Vehicle;Peer Effect;Range Anxiety;Driving Habits


Supported by : 한국연구재단


  1. K. S. Gallagher and E. Muehlegger, "Giving Green To Get Green? Incentives and Consumer Adoption of Hybrid Vehicle Technology," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Vol.61, No.1, pp.1-15, 2011.
  2. D. Magueta, M. Madaleno, M. F. Dias, and M. Meireles, "New Cars and Emissions: Effects of Policies, Macroeconomic Impacts and Cities Characteristics in Portugal," Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol.181, pp.178-191, 2018.
  3. H. Imkamp, "The Interest of Consumers in Ecological Product Information is Growing-Evidence from Two German Surveys," Journal of Consumer Policy, Vol.23, No.2, pp.193-202, 2000.
  4. M. E. Kahn, "Do Greens Drive Hummers or Hybrids? Environmental Ideology as a Determinant of Consumer Choice," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Vol.54, No.2, pp.129-145, 2007.
  5. ] F. Takeda and T. Tomozawa, "A Change in Market Response to the Environmental Management Ranking in Japan," Ecological Economics, Vol.67, No.3, pp.465-472, 2008.
  6. F. Nemry and M. Brons, Plug-In Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles: Market Penetration Scenarios of Electric Drive Vehicles, JRC Technical Notes 58748, Joint Research Centre of European Commission, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2010.
  7. M. Takala, "Environmental Awareness and Human Activity," International Journal of Psychology, Vol.26, No.5, pp.585-597, 1991.
  8. N. Fransson and T. Garling, "Environmental Concern: Conceptual Definitions, Measurement, Methods, and Research Findings," Journal of Environmental Psychology, Vol.19, No.4, pp.369-382, 1999.
  9. M. Cleveland, M. Kalamas, and M. Laroche, "Shades of Green: Linking Environmental Locus of Control and Pro-Environmental Behaviors," Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol.22, No.4, pp.198-212, 2005.
  10. M. Baldassare and C. Katz, "The Personal Threat of Environmental Problems as Predictor of Environmental Practices," Environment and Behavior, Vol.24, No.5, pp.602-616, 1992.
  11. P. C. Stern, "Psychological Dimensions of Global Environmental Change," Annual Review of Psychology, Vol.43, pp.269-302, 1992.
  12. L. V. White and N. D. Sintov, "You Are What You Drive: Environmentalist and Social Innovator Symbolism Drives Electric Vehicle Adoption Intentions," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Vol.99, pp.94-113, 2017.
  13. D. Fullerton, L. Gan, and M. Hattori, A Model to Evaluate Vehicle Emission Incentive Policies in Japan, Working Paper, Austin, TX: University of Texas, 2005.
  14. 최수호, 최정일, "자동차산업의 B2B 와 글로벌가치사슬 정책방향," 한국콘텐츠학회논문지, 제16권, 제12호, pp.399-409, 2016.
  15. A. Boulanger, A. Chu, S. Maxx, and D. Waltz, "Vehicle Electrification: Status and Issues," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol.99, No.6, pp.1116-1138, 2011.
  16. R. Bremner, "Chevrolet Volt Review (2011-2014)," Sunday Times Driving, 18 March, Retrieved from, 2014.
  17. H. Hao, X. Ou, J. Du, H. Wang, and M. Ouyang, "China's Electric Vehicle Subsidy Scheme: Rationale and Impacts," Energy Policy, Vol.73, pp.722-732, 2014.
  18. H. Byun, J. Shin, and C. Y. Lee, "Using a Discrete Choice Experiment to Predict the Penetration Possibility of Environmentally Friendly Vehicles," Energy, Vol.144, pp.312-321, 2018.
  19. J. Hong, Y. Koo, G. Jeong, and J. Lee, "Ex-Ante Evaluation of Profitability and Government's Subsidy Policy on Vehicle-to-Grid System," Energy Policy, Vol.42, pp.95-104, 2012.
  20. J. Nijhuis and S. van den Burg, "Consumer- Oriented Strategies in New Car Purchasing," Conference Proceedings: Workshop of the Sustainable Consumption Research Exchange (SCORE) Network. Cases in Sustainable Consumption and Production, Paris, pp.241-257, 2007.
  21. P. de Haan, A. Peters, and R W. Scholz, "Reducing Energy Consumption in Road Transport through Hybrid Vehicles: Investigation of Rebound Effects, and Possible Effects of Tax Rebates," Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol.15, pp.1076-1084, 2007.
  22. C. J. Yang, "Launching Strategy for Electric Vehicles: Lessons from China and Taiwan," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol.77, No.5, pp.831-834, 2010.
  23. W. R. Morrow, K. S. Gallagher, G. Collantes, and H. Lee, "Analysis of Policies to Reduce Oil Consumption and Greenhouse-Gas Emissions from the US Transportation Sector," Energy Policy, Vol.38, No.3, pp.1305-1320, 2010.
  24. A. Coad, P. de Haan, and J. S. Woersdorfer, "Consumer Support For Environmental Policies: An Application To Purchases Of Green Cars," Ecological Economics, Vol.68, No.7, pp.2078-2086, 2009.
  25. G. Heutel and E. Muehlegger, Consumer Learning and Hybrid Adoption, Working Paper, Boston, MA: Kennedy School, Harvard University, 2010.
  26. J. Arbuthnot, "The Roles of Attitudinal and Personality Variables in the Prediction of Environmental Behavior and Knowledge," Environment and Behavior, Vol.9, No.2, pp.217-232, 1977.
  27. J. D. Oliver and S. H. Lee, "Hybrid Car Purchase Intentions: A Cross-Cultural Analysis," Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol.27, No.2, pp.96-103, 2010.
  28. J. Vining and A. Ebreo, "What Makes a Recycler? A Comparison of Recyclers and Nonrecyclers," Environmental Behavior, Vol.22, No.1, pp.55-73, 1990.
  29. K. Chan, "Market Segmentation of Green Consumers in Hong Kong," Journal of International Consumer Marketing, Vol.12, No.2, pp.7-24, 1999.
  30. A. Goolsbee and P. J. Klenow, "Evidence on Learning and Network Externalities in the Diffusion of Home Computers," Journal of Law and Economics, Vol.45, No.2, pp.317-343, 2002.
  31. U. Eberle and R. von Helmolt, "Sustainable Transportation Based on Vehicle Concepts: A Brief Overview," Energy and Environmental Science, Vol.3, No.6, pp.689-699, 2010.
  32. M. Valentine-Urbschat and W. Bernhart, Powertrain 2020-The Future Drives Electric, Roland Berger Strategy Consultants, September, pp.1-95, 2009.
  33. T. Franke, I. Neumann, F. Bühler, P. Cocron, and J. F. Krems, "Experiencing Range in an Electric Vehicle-Understanding Psychological Barriers," Applied Psychology, Vol.61, No.3, pp.368-391, 2012.
  34. J. N. Sheth, "Psychology of Innovation Resistance: The Less Developed Concept(LDC) in Diffusion Research," Research in Marketing, Vol.4, pp.273-282, 1981.
  35. B. B. Stern, M. B. Royne, T. F. Stafford, and C. C. Bienstock, "Consumer Acceptance of Online Auctions: An Extensions and Revision of the TAM," Psychology & Marketing, Vol.25, No.7, pp.619-636, 2008.
  36. P. Cocron, F. Buhler, I. Neumann, T. Franke, J. F. Krems, M. Schwalm, and A. Keinath, "Methods of Evaluating Electric Vehicles from a User'S Perspective-The MINI E Field Trial in Berlin," IET Intelligent Transport Systems, Vol.5, No.2, pp.127-133, 2011.
  37. V. Griskevicius, J. M. Tybur, and B. van den Bergh, "Going Green to Be Seen: Status, Reputation, and Conspicuous Conservation," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.98, No.3, pp.392-404, 2010.
  38. M. Laroche, J. Bergeron, and G. Barbaro-Forleo, "Targeting Consumers Who Are Willing To Pay More for Environmentally Friendly Products," Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol.18, No.6, pp.503-520, 2001.
  39. T. S. Turrentine and K.S. Kurani, "Car Buyers and Fuel Economy?," Energy Policy, Vol.35, No.2, pp.1213-1223, 2007.
  40. P. de Haan, M. G. Mueller, and A. Peters, "Does the Hybrid Toyota Prius Lead to Rebound Effects? Analysis of Size and Number of Cars Previously Owned by Swiss Prius Buyers," Ecological Economics, Vol.58, No.3, pp.592-605, 2006.
  41. A. O. I. Hoffmann and T. L. J. Broekhuizen, "Understanding Investors' Decisions to Purchase Innovative Products: Drivers of Adoption Timing and Range," International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol.27, No.4, pp.342-355, 2010.
  42. E. M. Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, New York, NY: The Free Press, 1995.
  43. A. V. Citrin, D. E. Sprott, S. N. Sileverman, and D. E. Stem, "Adoption of Internet Shopping: The Role of Consumer Innovativeness," Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol.100, No.7, pp.294-300, 2000.
  44. J. W. Taylor, "A Striking Characteristic of Innovators," Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.14, No.1, pp.104-107, 1977.
  45. K. Peattie, Environmental Marketing Management: Meeting the Green Challenge, London: Pitman Publishing, 1995.
  46. D. Amyx, P. DeJong, X. Lin, G. Chakrabotry, and L. Wiener, "Influencers of Purchase Intentions for Ecologically Safe Products: A Exploratory Study," In C.W. Park et al.(eds.), "Marketing Theory and Applications," Proceedings of the 1994 AMA Winter Educators' Conference, Chicago, IL: American Marketing Association, Vol.5, pp.341-347, 1994.
  47. N. Barber, D. C. Taylor, and S. Strick, "Selective Marketing to Environmentally Concerned Wine Consumers: A Case for Location, Gender and Age," Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol.27, No.1, pp.64-75, 2010.
  48. J. C. Bradley, T. M. Waliczek, and J. M. Zajicek, "Relationship between Environmental Knowledge and Environmental Attitude of High School Students," Journal of Environmental Education, Vol.30, No.3, pp.17-21, 1999.
  49. G. Schraw, "Knowledge: Structures and Processes," In Handbook of Educational Psychology, Edited by P. Alexander and P. Winne, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, pp.245-263, 2006.
  50. 주영진, 한창우, "친환경성이 에너지절감 제품구매에 미치는 영향," 한국콘텐츠학회논문지, 제14권, 제5호, pp.347-355, 2014.