DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Perceptions of the Public on Women's Education and Employment: Evidence from the World Values Survey, 2016

  • Dom, Vannak (College of Education, University of Cambodia) ;
  • Yi, Gihong (Department of Sociology, Hallym University)
  • Received : 2018.02.19
  • Accepted : 2018.08.19
  • Published : 2018.08.31

Abstract

This study is an attempt to explore the perceptions of the public on women in higher education and employment, using data from the World Value Survey, had 90,350 respondents, of which 48.03% are male (N=43,391) and 51.87% are female (N=46,878). This study indicated that women, younger people, upper class people, religious people, and married people are more likely to have strong views against women's education and employment.

References

  1. Acker, S. (1987). Feminist theory and the study of gender and education. International Review of Education/Internationale Zeitschrift fur Erziehungswissenschaft/Revue Internationale de l'Education, 33 (4), 419-435. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00615157
  2. Arnot, M. (2002). Reproducing gender? Essay on educational theory and feminist politics. London, UK: Routledge Falmer.
  3. Becker, S. O., & WoBmann, L. (2008). Luther and the girls: Religious denomination and the female education gap in the 19th century Prussia. Scandinavia Journal of Economy, 110, 777-805. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9442.2008.00561.x
  4. Browne, B. A. (1998). Gender stereotypes in advertising on children's television in the 1990s. Journal of Advertising, 27 (1), 83-96.
  5. Chesters, J., & Watson, L. (2012). Understanding the persistence of inequality in higher education: Evidence from Australia. Journal of Education Policy, 1-18.
  6. Cho, U. (2012). Gender inequality and patriarchal order recontextualized. In H.-Y. Cho, L. Surendra, & H.-J. Cho, Contemporary South Korea society: A critical perspective (pp. 18- 27). London: Routledge.
  7. Cooray, A., & Potrafke, N. (2011). Gender inequality in education: Political institutions or culture and religion? European Journal of Political Economy, 27, 268-280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2010.08.004
  8. Core, F. (1994). Women and the restructuring of employment. The OECD Observer (186), 5-12.
  9. Council of Europe. (2016). Combating gender stereotypes and sexism in and through education. Retrieved Nov 30, 2016, from www.coe.int: https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?documentId=0900001680643799
  10. Crittenden, A. (2001). The price of motherhood: Why the most important job in the world is till least valued. New York, NY: Metropolitan Books.
  11. Davis, A. (2012). Modern motherhood: Women and family in England, c. 1945-2000. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
  12. Fabes. R., Pahlke, E., Martin, L.C., & Hanish, L. (2013). Gender-segregated schooling and gender seterotyping. Educational Studies, 39(3), 315-319 https://doi.org/10.1080/03055698.2012.760442
  13. Fleischmann, F., & Kristen, C. (2014). Gender inequalities in the education of the second generation in Western countries. Sociology of Education, 87 (3), 143-170. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038040714537836
  14. Flowers, A. (1975). Women in education. The High School Journal, 59 (1), 9-15.
  15. Gamble, R. J., & Wilkins, J. (1998). Gender inequality in early childhood education: Where are male teachers in the primary grades? The Negro Educational Review, 49 (1), 63-69.
  16. Gautam, M. (2015). Gender, subject choice and higher education in India: Exploring 'choices' and 'constraints of women students. Contemporary Education Dialogue, 12 (1), 31-58. https://doi.org/10.1177/0973184914556865
  17. Ginevra, M. C., & Nota, L. (2015). Occupational gender stereotypes and problem solving in Italian adolescents. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 1-16.
  18. Hanlon, N. (2012). Masculinities, care and equality: Identity and nurture in men's lives. Hamspire: Palgrave Macmillan.
  19. Haralambos, M., & Heald, R. M. (2003). Sociology: Themes and perspectives. New Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.
  20. Hutchison, S. (2014). Mind the gap: Gender and education. Montreal, Canada: UNESCO's Institute of Statistics.
  21. ILO. (2016). Women at work: Trends 2016. Geneva: International Labour Organisation.
  22. ILO. (2018). World employment social outlook: Trends for women 2018 global snapshot. Geneva, Switzerland: ILO. Retrieved August 30, 2018, from http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_619577.pdf
  23. Inglehart, R., C. Haerpfer, A. Moreno, C. Welzel, K. Kizilova, J. Diez-Medrano, M. Lagos, P. Norris, E. Ponarin & B. Puranen et al. (eds.). (2014). World Values Survey: Round Six - Country-Pooled Datafile Version: http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/WVSDocumentationWV6.jsp. Madrid: JD Systems Institute.
  24. Jacob, M. (2011). Do brothers affect their sisters' chances to graduate? An analysis of sibling sex composition effects on graduation from a university or a Fachhochschule in Germany. High Education, 61, 277-291. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-010-9377-8
  25. Lee, S. H. (2006). Rice plus: Widows and economic survival in rural Cambodia. New York, NY: Routledge.
  26. Logan, B., & Beuku-Betts, J. A. (1996). Women in education in Africa: An analysis of economic and sociocultural factors influencing observed trends. Journal of Asian African Studies, 31, 217-239. https://doi.org/10.1177/002190969603100306
  27. Loucopoulos, C., Pavur, R., & Gutierrez, C. (2002). Insights into gender discrimination in employment compensation through the use of classification models. Journal of Managerial Issues, 14(3), 375-387.
  28. Morley, L., & Crossouard, B. (2016). Women's leadership in the Asian century: Does expansion mean inclusion? Studies in Higher Education, 41(5), 801-814. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2016.1147749
  29. Norton, S. W., & Tomal, A. (2009). Religion and female educational attainment. Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, 41(5), 961-986. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1538-4616.2009.00240.x
  30. Obiageli, O. E., & Paulette, E. (2015). Parental attitude and girl - child education in Edo State, Nigeria. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 5(3), 175-180.
  31. Parker, F. (1972). Women's education; historical and international view. Contemporary Education, 43 (4), 198-201.
  32. Pavolini, E., & Ranci, C. (2010). Beyond the male breadwinner family model: The new configuration of social risks. In C. Ranci, Social vulnerability in Europe (pp. 37-58). Hamsphire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
  33. Pew Research Center. (2016). Religion and education around the world: Large gaps in education levels persits, but all faiths are making gains-particularly among women. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center (PCR).
  34. Saha, L. (2001). Sociology of Education. In T. L. Good, 21st Century education: A reference handbook (pp. 299-307). Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publicaiton Inc.
  35. Shanahan, J., & Morgan, M. (1999). Television and its viewers: Cultivation theory and research. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  36. Shimbori, M. (1979). Sociology of education. International Review of Education / Internationale Zeitschrift furErziehungswissenschaft / Revue Internationale de l'Education, 25 (2/3), 393-413.
  37. Spitze, G. (1988). Women's employment and family relations: A review. Journal of Marriage and Family, 50 (3), 595-618. https://doi.org/10.2307/352633
  38. Tong, R. (2014). Feminist thought: A more comprehensive introduction (4th ed.). Colorado: Westview Press.
  39. UNESCO. (2016). Leaving no one behind: How far on the way to universial primary and secondary education. Policy Paper 27/Fact Sheet 37, Montreal, Canada. Retrieved August 30, 2018
  40. UNESCO. (2018). One in five children, adolescents and youth is out of school. Montreal, Canada: UNESCO. Retrieved August 30, 2018, from http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/fs48-one-five-children-adolescents-youth-out-school-2018-en.pdf
  41. Ware, H. (1984). Effects of maternal education, women's roles, and child care on child mortality. Population and Development Review, 10, 191-214. https://doi.org/10.2307/2807961
  42. Winkler, A. E. (1998). Earnings of husbands and wives in dual-earner familiers. Monthly Labour Review, 42-48.
  43. Wollstonecraft, M. (2014). A vindication of the rights of woman. E. H. Botting, Ed. Yale University Press.
  44. World Economic Forum. (2016). The global gender gap report. World Economic Forum.
  45. World Values Survey. (2016). 6th Wave Survey. Vienna, Austria: WVS.