- Volume 23 Issue 4
DOI QR Code
The Mediating Effect of Anxiety on the Relationship between Internet Game Addiction and Life Satisfaction: Focusing on Male University Students in Harbin, China
인터넷 게임중독이 불안을 매개로 삶의 만족도에 미치는 영향: 중국 하얼빈 지역 남자 대학생을 중심으로
- Choi, Woon-Sun (Department of Childwelfare, Namseoul University)
- Received : 2018.10.19
- Accepted : 2018.12.10
- Published : 2018.12.30
The purpose of this study is to review Chinese policy on internet game addiction, and understand the level of internet game addiction, anxiety, and life satisfaction levels, and examine how game addiction affects life satisfaction with anxiety as a medium among male university students in China. In order to achieve the goals of the study, a survey was conducted on 240 male university students in Harbin, China. The research results are as follows. First, the internet game addiction level of male university students was at a relatively low level. Only 2.9% scored over 36 points, the litmus test for the category of clinical criterion, whereas the majority belonged to the general user group. Meanwhile, anxiety was at an intermediate level, along with a relatively high level of life satisfaction. Next, internet game addiction showed a positive correlation with anxiety, and a negative correlation with life satisfaction level. A negative correlation was found between anxiety and life satisfaction level. Lastly, anxiety was found to play a complete mediation role, as a mediator variable between internet game addiction and life satisfaction level. Based on the above results, policy and practical suggestions are proposed to improve the mental health of university students and to prevent and treat game addiction within China.
Supported by : Namseoul University
- American Psychiatric Association (2015). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM5. (J. S. Kwon Trans.), Seoul: Hakjisa Publisher, Inc.
- An, J. A. (2017, May 31). The meaning and prospect of game shutdown policy for minors in China. KISO Journal, No. 27. http://journal.kiso.or.kr/?p=8194
- Andreassen, C. S., Billieux, J., Griffiths, M., Kuss, D. & Demetrovics, Z. (2016). The relationship between addictive use of social media and video games and symptoms of psychiatric disorders: A large-scale cross-sectional study. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 30(2), 252-262. https://doi.org/10.1037/adb0000160
- Baik, J. S. (2005). College adaptation and internet game addiction by internet game motivation Types. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 26(1), 31-46.
- Baron, M. B. & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.113
- Cao, F. & Su, L. (2006). Internet addiction among Chinese adolescents: Prevalence and psychological features. Child Care, Health and Development, 33(3), 275-281.
- China Youth Internet Association (2012). The data report on internet addiction survey of Chinese Adolescents in 2011.
- Cui, J. H., Lee, C. H. & Bax, T. (2018). A comparison of 'psychosocially problematic gaming' among middle and high school students in China and South Korea. Computers in Human Behavior, 85, 86-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.03.040
- Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J. & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71-75. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13
- Griffiths, M. D. (1991). Amusement machine playing in childhood and adolescence: A comparative analysis of video games and fruit machines. Journal of Adolescence, 14, 53-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/0140-1971(91)90045-S
- Guneya, S., Kalafatb, T. & Boysan, M. (2010). Dimensions of mental health: Life satisfaction, anxiety and depression: a preventive mental health study in Ankara University students population. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 1210–1213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.174
- Guo, J., Chen, L., Wang, X., Liu, Y., Kwan, C. H., He, H., Qu, Z. & Tian, D. (2012). The relationship between internet addiction and depression among migrant children and left-behind children in China. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(11), 585-590.
- He, W., Zhao, F. J. & Shi, W. H. (2015). Relationship among subjective well-being and life satisfaction, stress, anxiety of college students. Occupation and Health, 31(20), 2841-2844.
- Kang, Y. D. & Lee, E. H. (2010). The influence of passion on computer game addiction and the mediating role of hostility and social skills in the relation of computer game addiction to interpersonal relation and social anxiety. The Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 15(3), 529-548. https://doi.org/10.17315/kjhp.2010.15.3.010
- Kim, Y. J., Han, D. H., Lee, Y. S., Min, K. J., Park, J. Y. & Lee, K, S. (2013). The effect of depression, anxiety, self-esteem, temperament, and character on life satisfaction in college students. Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association, 52, 150-156. https://doi.org/10.4306/jknpa.2013.52.3.150
- Király, O., Griffiths, M. D. & Demetrovics, Z. (2015). Internet gaming disorder and the DSM-5: Conceptualization, debates, and controversies. Current Addiction Reports, 2(3), 254-262. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-015-0066-7
- Király, O., Griffiths, M. D., Urbán, R., Farkas, J., Kökönyei, G., Elekes, Z., Tamás, D. & Demetrovics, Z. (2014). Problematic internet use and problematic online gaming are not the same: Findings from a large nationally representative adolescent sample. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17(12), 749-754.
- Kiraly, O., Nagygyörgy, K., Griffiths, M. D. & Demetrovics, Z. (2014). Problematic online gaming. In Rosenberg K, Feder L., editors(ed), Behavioral addictions: Criteria, evidence and treatment, 61-95. New York: Elsevier
- Ko, C., Yen, J., Chen, S. & Yen, C. (2005). Gender differences and related factors affecting online gaming addiction among Taiwanese adolescents. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193(4), 273-277. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.nmd.0000158373.85150.57
- Kraut R., Patterson, M., Lundmark, V., Kiesler, S., Mukopadhyay, T. & Scherlis, W. (1998). Internet paradox. A Social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being? American Psychologist, 53(9), 1017-1031. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.53.9.1017
- Kwon, S. J., Kim, K. H. & Lee, H. S. (2005). Computer game addiction and physical health of Korean children: Mediating effects of anxiety. Research Study, 6(2), 33-50.
- Lam, L. T., Peng, Z, W., Mai, J. C. & Jing, J. (2009). Factors associated with internet addiction among adolescents. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 12(5), 551-555. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2009.0036
- Lee, C. H., Yoon, C. K., Cui, J. H. & Kim, O. T. (2015). A comparison of using online game and the policy on addiction prevention and treatment among adolescents in Korea and China. Institute for International Economic Policy & National Youth Policy Institute.
- Lee, E. H. (2004). Life stress and depressive symptoms among college students: Testing for moderating effects of coping style with structural equations. Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 9, 25-52.
- Lee, S. M., Nam, S. K. & Lee, M. K. (2009). Economic values of mental health service in college counselling center. Korean Journal of Psychology: General, 28, 363-384.
- Lemmens, J. S., Valkenburg, P. M. & Gentile, D. A. (2015). The internet gaming disorder scale. Psychological Assessment, 27(2), 567-582. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000062
- Leung, L. (2004). Net-generation attributes and seductive properties of the internet as predictors of online activities and internet addiction. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 7(4), 333-348. https://doi.org/10.1089/1094931041291303
- Lin, M, P., Ko, H, C. & Wu, J. Y. (2011). Prevalence and psychosocial risk factors associated with internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students in Taiwan. CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(12), 741-746. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2010.0574
- Lo, S., Wang, C. & Fang, W. (2005). Physical interpersonal relationship and social anxiety among online game player. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 8, 15-20. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2005.8.15
- Loton, D. (2012). Excessive gamers more depressed. Retrieved from https://www.vu.edu.au/news-events/media-releases/excessive-gamers-more-depressed.
- Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China (2018). Implementation plan of comprehensive prevention and control of myopia in children and adolescents. http://www.moe.gov.cn/jyb_xwfb/gzdt_gzdt/s5987/201808/t20180830_346673.html
- National Internet Information Office in China (2016). A Notice of public consultation about "Regulation on Network Protection of minors(draft for comments)". http://www.cac.gov.cn/2016-09/30/c_1119656665.htm
- Overseas Chinese Charity Foundation of China (2017).2016 White paper on the growth of Chinese college students.
- Petry, N. M., Rehbein, F., Gentile, D. A., Lemmens, J. S., Rumpf, H. J. & Mößle, T., Bischof, G., Tao, R., Fung, D. S., Borges, G., Auriacombe, M., Gonzάlez, I. A., Tam, P., & O’Brien, C. P. (2014). An international consensus for assessing internet gaming disorder using the new DSM-5 approach. Addiction, 109(9), 1399–1406. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.12457
- Pontes, H. M. & Griffiths, M. D. (2015). Measuring DSM-5 internet gaming disorder: Development and validation of a short psychometric scale. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 137-143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.12.006
- Pontes, H. M. (2017). Investigating the differential effects of social networking site addiction and internet gaming disorder on psychological health. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 6(4), 601-610. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.6.2017.075
- Pontes, H. M., Macur, M. & Griffiths, M. D. (2016). Internet gaming disorder among Slovenian primary schoolchildren: Findings from a nationally representative sample of adolescents. Journal of Behavioral addictions, 5(2), 304-310. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.5.2016.042
- Rehbein, F., Kliem, S., Baier, D., Mossle, T. & Petry, N. M. (2015). Prevalence of internet gaming disorder in German adolescents: Diagnosis contribution of the nine DSM-5 criteria in a state-wide representative sample. Addiction, 110(5), 842-851. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.12849
- Rujataronjai, W. & Varma, P. (2016). The impact of video game addiction on depression, anxiety, and stress among Thai adolescents, mediated by self-regulation and social support. Scholar: Human Sciences, 18(2), 146-153.
- Shapira, N. A., Goldsmith, T. D., Keck, P. E., Jr., Khosla, U. M. & McElroy, S. L. (2000). Psychiatric features of individuals with problematic internet use. Journal of Affective Disorders, 57, 267-272. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0327(99)00107-X
- Shi, Q., Xu, X, Liu, N., Li, J., Sun, X. & Zhang, K. (2007). Why some people are addicted to computer games: An analysis of psychological aspects of game players and games. HCI International 2007 Proceedings, Beijing, China, July 22-27, 1279-1283.
- Spielberger, C. D. (1977). Theory and measurement of anxiety state. In Cattell, R. B., & Dreger, R. M(ed). Handbook of Modern Personality Theory, 239-253. N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons.
- Stavropoulos, V., Beard, C., Griffiths, M. D., Buleigh, T., Gomez, R. & Pontes, H. M. (2017). Measurement invariance of the internet gaming disorder scale-short-form (IGDS9-SF) between Australia, the USA, and the UK. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 16(2), 377-392. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-017-9786-3
- Tao, R., Huang, X. Q., Wang, J. N., Liu, C. Y., Zhang, H. M., Xiao, L. J. & Yao, S. M. (2008). A proposed criterion for clinical diagnosis of internet addiction. Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army, 10, 1188-1191.
- Tao, R., Huang, X. Q., Wang, J. N., Zhang, H. M., Zhang, Y. & Li, M. C. (2010). Proposed diagnostic criteria for internet addiction. Addiction, 105, 556-564. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02828.x
- Tencent Research Institute Security Research Center & Data Center of the China Internet (2017). Research report on youth online game behavior and protection in China.
- Wan, C. & Chiou, W. (2006). Why are adolescents addicted to online gaming? An interview study in Taiwan. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 9, 762-66. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2006.9.762
- Wang, B., Yu, H. B. & Yang, S. (2007). The relationship between online game addiction and learning burnout of college students. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 21(12), 841-844. https://doi.org/10.3321/j.issn:1000-6729.2007.12.011
- Wang, E. S., Chen, L. S., Lin, J. Y. & Wang, M. C. (2008). The relationship between leisure satisfaction and life satisfaction of adolescents concerning online games. Adolescence, 43, 177-184.
- Wang, L. H. & Yuan, Y. H. (2011). The negative impact of online games on college students and its countermeasures. Trade Unions' Tribune, 17(2), 38-40. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1008-6153.2011.02.014
- Wei, H. T., Chen, M. H., Huang, P. C. & Bai, Y. M.(2012). The association between online gaming, social phobia, and depression: An internet survey. BMC Psychiatry, 12, 92-98. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-12-92
- Wenzel, H. G., Bakkken, I. J., Johansson, A., Gotestam, K. G. & Oren, A. (2009). Excessive computer game playing among Norwegian adults: Self-reported consequences of playing and association with mental health problems. Psychological Reports, 105, 1237-1247. https://doi.org/10.2466/PR0.105.F.1237-1247
- WHO. (2008, August 21). ICD-11 for Mortality and Morbidity Statistics. https://icd.who.int/browse11/l-m/en.
- Yang, S. J. (2008). The relationship between college students' computer game addiction and mental health. Unpublished master's thesis, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin, China.
- Yu, C. F., Xian Li, X. & Zhang, W. (2015). Predicting adolescent problematic online game use from teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and school engagement: A 2-year longitudinal study. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18(4), 228-233. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2014.0385
- Yu, L. (2017). Relationship between anxiety, depression, social support and life satisfaction of students in Zhaoqing Medical College. Occupation and Health, 33(5), 682-684.
- Zhang, Y. Y. & He, X. J. (2017). Investigation and analysis of college students' addiction to online games. Education Teaching Forum, 19, 73-75.
- Zhao, H. X. & Xi, W. G. (2011). The influencing effect of economic status and anxiety on life satisfaction among college students. Journal of Chifeng University, 27(4), 225-226.
- Zhou, X. Q., Xi, X. L., Cheng, Z. H., Shen, L. H. & Li, P. (2014). Prevalence of internet addiction disorder and mental health status among college students. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 22(4), 619-622.