DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Dynamic Equivalent Battery as a Metric to Evaluate the Demand Response Performance of an EV Fleet

  • Yoon, Sung Hyun (Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University) ;
  • Jin, Young Gyu (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Jeju National University) ;
  • Yoon, Yong Tae (Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University)
  • Received : 2018.04.30
  • Accepted : 2018.08.02
  • Published : 2018.11.01

Abstract

Electric vehicles (EVs) are significant resources for demand response (DR). Thus, it is essential for EV aggregators to quantitatively evaluate their capability for DR. In this paper, a concept of dynamic equivalent battery (DEB) is proposed as a metric for evaluating the DR performance using EVs. The DEB is the available virtual battery for DR. The capacity of DEB is determined from stochastic calculation while satisfying the charging requirements of each EV, and it varies also with time. Further, a new indicator based on the DEB and time-varying electricity prices, named as value of DEB (VoDEB), is introduced to quantify the value of DEB coupled with the electricity prices. The effectiveness of the DEB and the VoDEB as metrics for the DR performance of EVs is verified with the simulations, where the difference of charging cost reduction between direct charging and optimized bidding methods is used to express the DR performance. The simulation results show that the proposed metrics accord well with the DR performance of an EV fleet. Thus, an EV aggregator may utilize the proposed concepts of DEB and VoDEB for designing an incentive scheme to EV users, who participate in a DR program.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Jeju National University

References

  1. J. C. Mukherjee and A. Gupta, "A Review of Charge Scheduling of Electric Vehicles in Smart Grid," IEEE Systems Journal, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 1541-1553, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSYST.2014.2356559
  2. Tefft, B.C, "American Driving Survey: 2015-2016," AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, Washington, D.C. Jan. 2018.
  3. E. Sortomme and M. A. El-Sharkawi, "Optimal Charging Strategies for Unidirectional Vehicle-to-Grid," IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 131-138, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2010.2090910
  4. C. Jin, J. Tang and P. Ghosh, "Optimizing Electric Vehicle Charging With Energy Storage in the Electricity Market," IEEE Trans on Smart Grid, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 311-320, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2012.2218834
  5. S. Li, M. Brocanelli, W. Zhang and X. Wang, "Integrated Power Management of Data Centers and Electric Vehicles for Energy and Regulation Market Participation," IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 2283-2294, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2014.2321519
  6. S. Han, S. Han and K. Sezaki, "Development of an Optimal Vehicle-to-Grid Aggregator for Frequency Regulation," IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 65-72, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2010.2045163
  7. K. Knezovic, S. Martinenas, P. B. Andersen, A. Zecchino and M. Marinelli, "Enhancing the Role of Electric Vehicles in the Power Grid: Field Validation of Multiple Ancillary Services," IEEE Trans. on Transportation Electrification, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 201-209, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1109/TTE.2016.2616864
  8. S. I. Vagropoulos and A. G. Bakirtzis, "Optimal Bidding Strategy for Electric Vehicle Aggregators in Electricity Markets," IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 4031-4041, Nov. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2013.2274673
  9. P. Sanchez-Martin, S. Lumbreras and A. Alberdi-Alen, "Stochastic Programming Applied to EV Charging Points for Energy and Reserve Service Markets," IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 198-205, Jan. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2015.2405755
  10. D. Dallinger, D. Krampe and M. Wietschel, "Vehicleto-Grid Regulation Reserves Based on a Dynamic Simulation of Mobility Behavior," IEEE Trans on Smart Grid, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 302-313, June 2011. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2011.2131692
  11. R. J. Bessa, M. A. Matos, F. J. Soares and J. A. P. Lopes, "Optimized Bidding of a EV Aggregation Agent in the Electricity Market," IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 443-452, March 2012. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2011.2159632