Experimental Study on Air Decomposition By-Product Under Creepage Discharge Fault and Their Impact on Insulating Materials

  • Javed, Hassan (Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, University of Chinese A academy of Science) ;
  • LI, Kang (Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science) ;
  • Zhang, Guoqiang (Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science) ;
  • Plesca, Adrian Traian (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi)
  • Received : 2018.01.19
  • Accepted : 2018.04.23
  • Published : 2018.11.01


Creepage discharge faults in air on solid insulating material play a vital role in degradation and ageing of material which ultimately leads to breakdown of power equipment. And electric discharge decompose air in to its by-products such as Ozone and $NO_x$ gases. By analyzing air decomposition gases is a potential method for fault diagnostic in air. In this paper, experimental research has been conducted to study the effect of creepage discharge on rate of generation of air decomposition by-products using different insulating materials such as RTV, epoxy and fiberglass laminated sheet. Moreover XRF analysis has been done to analyze creepage discharge effect on these insulating materials. All experiments have been done in an open air test cell under constant temperature and pressure conditions. While analysis has been made for low and high humidity conditions. The results show that the overall concentration of air decomposition by-products under creepage discharge in low humidity is 4% higher than concentration measured in high humidity. Based on this study a mathematical relationship is also proposed for the rate of generation of air decomposition by-products under creepage discharge fault. This study leads to indirect way for diagnostic of creepage discharge propagation in air.


  1. J. G. Anderson, T. W. Liao, "The Propagation mechanism of impulse creepage discharge over oilimmersed surfaces," AIEE Trans. Pt.l, vol. 18, pp. 218-226, 1955. DOI: 10.1109/EE.1955.6439598.
  2. H. Kishida, T. Sat, Y. Toriyama, "The Discharge Figure in Insulating Oil and the Effect of a Slot on Surface Discharge in Oil," IEE of Japan, vol. 92-A, no. 5, pp. 246-250, 1972. DOI: 10.1541/ieejfms1972.92.246
  3. J. C. Devins, S. J. Rzad, "Streamer Propagation in Liquids and over Liquid-Solid Interfaces," 1982 Annual Report, CEIDP, pp. 383-394, 1982. DOI: 10.1109/TEI.1982.298526.
  4. S. Ohgaki, Y. Tsunod, "A Study of Positive Streamer Growth under Surface Discharge Configuration in Liquid Paraffin," IEEE Trans. Elect. Insul., vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 594-601, 1984. DOI: 10.1109/TEI.1984.298716.
  5. T. Kouno, "Creepage Discharge Characteristics under Non-uniform Field," Technical Report(Part 2) of IEE of Japan, vol. 84, 1984.
  6. P. Atten, A. Saker, "Streamer Propagation over a Liquid/ Solid Interfac," IEFE Trans. Elect Insul, vol. 28(2), pp. 230-242, 1993. DOI: 10.1109/14.212248.
  7. R. Schwarz, T. Judendorfer, M. Muhr, "Review of Partial Discharge Monitoring techniques used in High Voltage Equipments," 2008 Annual Report Conference on Electrical Insulation Dielectric Phenomena, pp. 400-403, 2008. DOI:10.1109/CEIDP.2008.4772825.
  8. H. Javed, K.. Li, G. Zhang, et al, "Online Monitoring of Partial Discharge Initiated Under Metallic Protrusion Defect in High Humidity by Measuring Air Decomposition by-Products," IEEE 2nd International Conference on Power and Renewable Energy(ICPRE2017), pp. 244-249, Chengdu, China, September 2017.
  9. H. Javed, K.. Li, G. Zhang and A.T. Plesca, "Online Monitoring of Partial Discharge by Measuring Air Decomposition By-Products under Low and High Humidity," International Conference on Energy, Power and Environmental Engineering (ICEPEE2017), pp. 186-191, Shanghai, China, April 2017. DOI10.12783/dteees/icepe2017/11837.
  10. E. F. Kelley, R. E. Hebner, "Electrical Breakdown in Composite Insulating Systems: Liquid-solid Interface Parallel to the Field," IEEE Trans. Electr. Insul., vol. 16, pp. 297-303, 1981. DOI:10.1109/TEI.1981.298363
  11. E. A. Cherney, J. D. Croos, "Electrical Breakdown at Solid-Liquid Interfaces," IEEE Trans. Elec. Insul, vol. 12, pp. 214-218, 1977. DOI: 10.1109/TEI.1977.298024.
  12. Hugh M. Ryan, High-Voltage Engineering and testing, IET press, third edn, 2013.
  13. IEC, [Online]. Available:, September 20th 2017.
  14. Xutao Wu, et al, "Effect of vulcanization temperature and humidity on the properties of RTV silicone rubber," ACMME2017, pp. 1-8, 2017. Doi:10.1088/1757-899X/207/1/012011.
  15. B Deneve and M.E.R. Shanahan, "Effects of humidity on an epoxy adhesive," International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 191-196, July 1992.
  16. Kang Li, Hassan javed, Guoqiang Zhang, "Experimental Study on Ozone Production under 50 Hz Corona Discharge Used for Fault Diagnostic," Proc. 2nd International conference on Machinery, Materials Engineering, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, pp. 456-460, Chongqing, China, Nov 2015. DOI:10.2991/mmeceb-15.2016.90.
  17. R. Peyrous, "The Effect of Relative Humidity on Ozone Production by Corona Discharge in Oxygen or Air -A Numerical Simulation -Part II: Air," Ozone: Science & Engineering, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 41-64, July 2008. DOI:10.1080/01919519008552454.
  18. Wei Wang, Bin Bao, Jianfeng Xu, Bing Zhou, et al, "Creepage discharge performance for high moisture pressboard," 2011 Annual Report Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP) Mexico, pp. 480-483, October 2011.
  19. M. Radmilovic, Radjenovic, B. Radjenovic, Z. Nikitovic, S. Matejcik, M. Klas, "The humidity effect on the breakdown voltage characteristics and the transport parameters of air," Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Bea m Interactions with Materials and Atoms, vol. (279), pp. 103-105, May 2012. DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2011.10.053.
  20. J. Schmid, "Influence of absolute humidity on the electrical breakdown in air," International transctions on electrical engineeing, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 327-334, October 1992. DOI: 10.1002/etep.4450020511.
  21. Epoxysheet, [Online] Available:, November 16th 2017.
  22. RateEquation, [Online] Available: Rate_equation, August 10th 2017.