Improvement of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of aleurone layer extracts of black rice (Oryza sativa L.) by enzyme treatment

효소 처리에 의한 흑미 호분 추출물의 산화방지와 항염증 활성 증진

  • Received : 2018.07.25
  • Accepted : 2018.09.07
  • Published : 2018.10.31


The current study investigated the effects of enzyme treatment on black rice (Oryza sativa L.) aleurone layer extracts. Different enzymes (lipase, lecitase ultra and lipopan 50BG) were used to test anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro. The antioxidant activities of enzyme treated or non-enzyme treated extracts of black rice bran were evaluated via 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity. Lipase treated extracts of black rice bran showed higher antioxidant activity compared to that of non-enzyme treated extracts. Anti-inflammatory activities of enzyme treated black rice bran extracts on nitrite production and tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}$ ($TNF-{\alpha}$) secretion, were tested using a nitric oxide (NO) colorimetric assay kit and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The ethanolic extract of enzyme treated black rice bran decreased the levels of nitric oxide production and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}$, in a lipopolysaccharidestimulated RAW 264.7 cell culture. These findings indicate that enhanced anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation activities of the ethanolic extracts of enzyme treated black rice (Oryza sativa L.) aleurone layers, may be attributed to molecular conversion of ingredients in enzyme catalyzed reactions.


Supported by : 한국연구 재단, 한국여성과학기술인지원센터


  1. Bae SJ. The antimicrobial activities of waste food fractions. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 32: 825-828 (2003)
  2. Chen X, Miao J, Wang H, Zhao F, Hu J, Gao P, Wang Y, Zhang L, Yan M. The anti-inflammatory activities of Ainsliaea fragrans Champ. extract and its components in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages through inhibition of NF-${\kappa}B$ pathway. J. Ethnopharmacol. 170: 72-80 (2015)
  3. Cho MK, Kim MH, Kang MY. Effects of rice embryo and embryo jelly with black rice bran pigment on lipid metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activity in high cholesterol-fed rats. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 51: 200-206 (2008)
  4. Choi Y, Kim MH, Shin JJ, Park JM, Lee J. The antioxidant activities of the some commercial teas. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 32: 723-727 (2003)
  5. Choi SW, Nam SH, Choi HC. Antioxidative activity of ethanolic extracts of rice brans. Food Biotechnol. 5: 305-309 (1996)
  6. Dewanto V, Wu X, Adom KK, Liu RH. Thermal processing enhances the nutrition value of tomatoes by increasing total antioxidant activity. J. Agr. Food chem. 50: 3010-3014 (2002)
  7. Hyun TK, Ko YJ, Kim EH, Chung IM, Kim JS. Anti-inflammatory activity and phenolic composition of Dendropanax morbifera leaf extracts. Ind. Crops Prod. 74: 263-270 (2015)
  8. Kim MJ, Bae NY, Kim KBWR, Park JH, Park SH, Choi JS, Ahn DH. Anti-inflammatory effect of Grateloupia imbricata holmes ethanol extract on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 45: 181-187 (2016)
  9. Kim YC, Cho CW, Rhee YK, Yoo KM, Rho J. Antioxidant activity of ginseng extracts prepared by enzyme and heat treatment. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 36:1482-1485 (2007)
  10. Kim YH, Lee YJ, Park SO, Lee SJ, Lee OH. Antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activities of fermented black rice and its fractions. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 45:262-266 (2013)
  11. Kim SY, Yun IJ, Kwon CJ, Choi JW, Kim YM, Kang MH, Lee MK, Nam TJ. The effects of anti-obesity on enzyme-treated Ecklonia cava extracts. Kor. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 47: 363-369 (2014)
  12. Kong S, Choi Y, Lee SM, Lee J. Antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extracts from milling fractions of black rice. J Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 37: 815-819 (2008)
  13. Kwak JH, Choi GN, Park JH, Kim JH, Jeong HR, Jeong CH, Heo HJ. Antioxidant and neuronal cell protective effect of purple sweet potato extract. J. Agric. Life Sci. 44:57-66 (2010)
  14. Jang HH, Park MY, Kim HW, Lee YM, Hwang KA, Park JH, Park DS, Kwon O. Black rice (Oryza sativa L.) extract attenuates hepatic steatosis in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet via fatty acid oxidation. Nutri. Metab. 30: 9-27 (2012)
  15. Jeong JB, Hong SC, Jeong HJ, Koo JS. Anti-inflammatory effects of ethyl acetate fraction from Cnidium officinale Makino on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 and THP-1 cells. Korean J. Plant Res. 25: 299-307 (2012)
  16. Joung YM, Park SJ, Lee KY, Lee JY, Suh JK, Hwang SY, Park KE, Kang MH. Antioxidative and antimicrobial activities of Lilium species extracts prepared from different aerial parts. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 39: 452-457 (2010)
  17. Lee SH, Jang MR, Kim GH. Antioxidant effects of extracts from different parts of Epimedium koreanum Nakai. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 45: 188-193 (2016)
  18. Lee ST, Jeong YR, Ha MH, Kim SH, Byun MW, Jo SK. Induction of nitric oxide and TNF-${\alpha}$ by herbal plant extracts in mouse macrophages. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 29: 342-328 (2000)
  19. Muramoto G, Kawamura S. Rice protein and antihypertensive peptide (angiotensin conversion enzyme inhibitor) from rice. Nippon Shokuhin Kougyo Gakkaishi 34: 18-26 (1991)
  20. Nam SH, Cho SP, Kang MY, Koh HJ, Kozukue N, Friedman M. Antioxidant activities of bran extracts from twenty one black rice cultivars. Food Chem. 94: 613-620 (2006)
  21. Nam, SH, Kang MY. In vitro inhibitory effect of colored rice bran extracts carcinogenicity. Agri. Chem. Biotechnol. 40: 307-312 (1997)
  22. Nam, SH, Kang MY. Comparison of effect of rice bran extracts if the colored rice cultivars on carcinogenesis. Agri. Chem. Biotechnol. 41: 78-83 (1998)
  23. RDA. Food Composition Table. 8th ed. Rural Development administration, Jeonju, Korea. pp. 28-29 (2011)
  24. Seo SJ, Choi YM, Lee SM, Kong SH, Lee JS. Antioxidant activities and antioxidant compounds of some specialty rices. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 37: 129-135 (2008)
  25. Serbinova EA, Packer L. Antioxidant properties of ${\alpha}$-tocopherol and ${\alpha}$-tocotrienol. Methods Enzymol. 234: 354-366 (1994)
  26. Shon DH, Choi DW, Kim MH. Improvement of anti-inflammation activity of gardeniae fructus extract by the treatment ${\beta}$-glucosidase. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 44: 331-336 (2012)
  27. Sung HM, Kim SJ, Kim KM, Yun SK, Jung HJ, Kim TY, Wee JY. Antioxidant activity of soy-sprout extracts prepared by enzyme and ultra high pressure. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 43: 1228-1235 (2014)
  28. Yuan HD, Quan HY, Jung MS, Kim SJ, Huang B, Kim DY, Chung SH. Anti-diabetic effect of pectinase-processed ginseng radix (GINST) in high fat diet-fed ICR mice. J. Ginseng Res. 35: 308-314 (2011)