DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

The Effects of Acupuncture at GB34 on Disuse Muscle Atrophy in Rats

흰쥐의 불용성 근위축에 양릉천 자침이 미치는 효과

  • Received : 2018.09.15
  • Accepted : 2018.10.01
  • Published : 2018.10.31

Abstract

Objectives Disuse muscle atrophy occurs in response to pathologies such as joint immobilization, inactivity or bed rest. Muscle disuse is accompanied by an increase in apoptotic signaling, which mediates some of the responses to unloading in the muscle. GB34 (Yanglingquan) is a acupuncture point on the lower leg and one of the most frequently used points in various skeletomuscular diseases. In this study, the hypothesis that the acupuncture at GB34 could attenuate immobilization-induced skeletal muscle atrophy was tested. Methods The left hindlimb immobilization was performed with casting tape in both GB34 group (n=10) and Control group (n=10). The rats in GB34 group were daily treated with acupuncture at GB34. After 2 weeks of immobilization, the morphology of right and left gastrocnemius muscles in both GB34 and Control groups were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. To investigate the immobilization-induced muscular apoptosis, the immunohistochemical analysis of Bax and Bcl-2 was carried out. Results GB34 group represented the significant protective effects against the reductions of the left gastrocnemius muscles weight and average cross section area to compared with Control group. The acupuncture at GB34 significantly reduced the immunoreactivity of BAX and increased the immunoreactivity of Bcl-2 in gastrocnemius muscle compared with Control group. Conclusions These results suggest that the acupuncture at GB34 has protective effects against immobilization-induced muscle atrophy by regulating the activities of apoptosis-associated BAX/Bcl-2 proteins in gastrocnemius muscle.

Keywords

Disuse atrophy;Gastrocnemius;GB34 (Yanglingquan);Apoptosis

References

  1. Wall BT, van Loon LJ. Nutritional strategies to attenuate muscle disuse atrophy. Nutr Rev. 2013;71(4):195-208. https://doi.org/10.1111/nure.12019
  2. Wall BT, Dirks ML, van Loon LJ. Skeletal muscle atrophy during short-term disuse: implications for age-related sarcopenia. Ageing Res Rev. 2013;12(4):898-906. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2013.07.003
  3. Valenzuela PL, Morales JS, Pareja-Galeano H, Izquierdo M, Emanuele E, de la Villa P, Lucia A. Physical strategies to prevent disuse-induced functional decline in the elderly. Ageing Res Rev. 2018;47(1):80-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2018.07.003
  4. Pileggi CA, Hedges CP, D'Souza RF, Durainayagam BR, Markworth JF, Hickey AJR, Mitchell CJ, Cameron-Smith D. Exercise recovery increases skeletal muscle H2O2 emission and mitochondrial respiratory capacity following two-weeks of limb immobilization. Free Radic Biol Med. 2018;124(1):241-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2018.06.012
  5. Kozakowska M, Pietraszek-Gremplewicz K, Jozkowicz A, Dulak J. The role of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle injury and regeneration: focus on antioxidant enzymes. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2015;36(6):377-93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10974-015-9438-9
  6. Hu NF, Chang H, Du B, Zhang QW, Arfat Y, Dang K, Gao YF. Tetramethylpyrazine ameliorated disuse-induced gastrocnemius muscle atrophy in hindlimb unloading rats through suppression of Ca2+/ROS-mediated apoptosis. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017;42(2):117-27. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2016-0363
  7. Siu PM, Pistilli EE, Butler DC, Alway SE. Aging influences cellular and molecular responses of apoptosis to skeletal muscle unloading. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;288(2):338-49. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00239.2004
  8. Siu PM, Pistilli EE, Alway SE. Apoptotic responses to hindlimb suspension in gastrocnemius muscles from young adult and aged rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;289(4):1015-26. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00198.2005
  9. Textbook Committee of Korean Acupuncture and Moxibustion Society. The Acupuncture and Moxibustion. 1st ed. Seoul:Jipmoondang, 2001:382-4.
  10. Watson P. Modulation of involuntary movements in cerebral palsy with acupuncture. Acupunct Med. 2009;27(2):76-8. https://doi.org/10.1136/aim.2009.000703
  11. Kwon HY, Kim JH. The effects of Yanggnungchon(G34) acupuncture on the muscle fatigue. Korean Journal of Acupuncture. 2008;25(2):115-23.
  12. Youn DH, You PS, Kim WI, Kim MR, Choi DH, Na CS. Effects of laser acupuncture therapy according to the wavelength at GB34.GB39 on neuropathic pain rat induced by tibial and sural nerve transection. Korean Journal of Acupuncture. 2014;31(4):195-207.
  13. Wang JY, Gao YH, Qiao LN, Zhang JL, Duan-Mu CL, Yan YX, Chen SP, Liu JL. Repeated electroacupuncture treatment attenuated hyperalgesia through suppression of spinal glial activation in chronic neuropathic pain rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018;18(1):74-84. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-018-2134-8
  14. Lee JT, Lee BR, Yang GY, Lee HY, Yim YK. A study on the effect of herbal-acupuncture with Artemisiae Capillaris Herba at GB34 on hyperlipidemia in rat. Korean Journal of Acupuncture. 2010;27(1):107-23.
  15. Kim BS, Lee HY, Yim YK. The effect of electro-acupuncture at ST36 on carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic hepatic damage in rats. Korean Journal of Acupuncture. 2015;32(3):90-8. https://doi.org/10.14406/acu.2015.016
  16. Jung JC, Kim KH, Park YC, Kim HB, Lee SH, Chang DI, Lee YH. The study on the effect of acupuncture on UPDRS and heart rate variability in the patients with idiopathic parkinson's disease. The Acupunct. 2006;23(3):143-53.
  17. So RC, Ng JK, Ng GY. Effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation on fatigue recovery of the quadriceps. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2007;100(6):693-700. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-007-0463-2
  18. Udaka J, Terui T, Ohtsuki I, Marumo K, Ishiwata S, Kurihara S, Fukuda N. Depressed contractile performance and reduced fatigue resistance in single skinned fibers of soleus muscle after long-term disuse in rats. J Appl Physiol. 2011;111(4):1080-7. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00330.2011
  19. Tanahashi N, Shikami J, Yoneda M, Ishida T. Effects of manual acupuncture at GB34 on carbon tetrachlorideinduced acute liver injury in rats. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2011;4(4):214-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jams.2011.09.012
  20. Matsumoto Y, Nakano J, Oga S, Kataoka H, Honda Y, Sakamoto J, Okita M. The non-thermal effects of pulsed ultrasound irradiation on the development of disuse muscle atrophy in rat gastrocnemius muscle. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2014;40(7):1578-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2013.12.031
  21. Lee G, Lim JY, Frontera WR. Apoptosis in young and old denervated rat skeletal muscle. Muscle Nerve. 2017;55(2):262-9. https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.25221
  22. Zhang SF, Zhang Y, Li B, Chen N. Physical inactivity induces the atrophy of skeletal muscle of rats through activating AMPK/FoxO3 signal pathway. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2018;22(1):199-209.
  23. Alway SE, Bennett BT, Wilson JC, Sperringer J, Mohamed JS, Edens NK, Pereira SL. Green tea extract attenuates muscle loss and improves muscle function during disuse, but fails to improve muscle recovery following unloading in aged rats. J Appl Physiol. 2015;118(3):319-30. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00674.2014