An Empirical Encounter of Cultural Orientation and Cultivation Theory: Factors of Perception of Materialistic Realities and Dealing with Materialism of University Students in South Korea

  • Received : 2019.08.05
  • Accepted : 2019.11.25
  • Published : 2019.11.30


The purpose of this study is to explore whether the perceptions of materialistic realities of South Korean university students can be explained by individual experience and media use. We examined: 1) relative consequences of awareness of discrimination experience and amounts of time spent on genre-specific media on perceptions of materialistic realities, 2) whether cultural orientation (allocentrism, self-monitoring, and masculinity) influences explanatory factors of awareness of discrimination experience, 3) conditions of countervailing responses to materialistic reality. As a result of analyzing the online survey data of 330 university students in Seoul, the amount of time spent on the beauty or fashion genre and awareness of discrimination experience explained the perceptions of materialist reality in Korean society. Although the perceptions that affected the accommodative response did not affect countervailing response, innovativeness had an interaction effect with perceptions of materialist reality in only countervailing response. Finally, the implications of these findings were discussed.


  1. Ahn, S. U., Kim, H. S., & Ahn, M. (2005). A study on the development and validation of Korean ambivalent sexism inventory. Korean Journal of Social and Personality Psychology. 19(2), 39-66.
  2. Babbie, E. (2007). The practice of social research (11th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  3. Bariya, M. K., Chhodvadia, H. C., Patel, H., Parmar, S., & Vyas, J. (2017). Study on profile characteristics of women self-help group members. Journal of Krishi Vigyan, 5(2), 154-159.
  4. Becherer, R. G., & Richard, L. M. (1978). Self-monitoring as a moderation variable in consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 5, 159-162.
  5. Behal, M., & Soni, P. (2018). Media use and materialism. Management and Labour Studies, 43(4), 247-262.
  6. Bian, Q., & Forsythe, S. (2012). Purchase intention for luxury brands. Journal of Business Research, 65(10), 1443-1451.
  7. Breuer, J., Kowert, R., Festl, R., & Quandt, T. (2015). Sexist games = sexist gamers? Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18(4), 197-202.
  8. Bryant, J., & Oliver, M.B. (2009) Media Effects. New York, NY: Routledge.
  9. Bush, V. D., & Gilbert, F. W. (2002). The web as a medium. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 10(1), 1-10.
  10. Carr, D., & Friedman, M. A. (2005). Is obesity stigmatizing?. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46(3), 244-259.
  11. Cho, G. H. (1997). Cultural variations in emotions. Psychological Science, 6(2), 1-43.
  12. Church, A. T., Katigbak, M. S., Del Prado, A. M., Ortiz, F. A., Mastor, K. A., Harumi, Y., ... & Miramontes, L. G. (2006). Implicit theories and self-perceptions of traitedness across cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37(6), 694-716.
  13. Cuddy, A. J., Wolf, E. B., Glick, P., Crotty, S., Chong, J., & Norton, M. I. (2015). Men as cultural. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109(4), 622-635.
  14. Eisend, M., & Mo ller, J. (2007). The influence of TV viewing on consumers' body images and related consumption behavior. Marketing Letters, 18(1-2), 101-116.
  15. Fagerberg, J. (2006). What do we know about innovation and socio-economic change? In L. Earl & R. Gaul (Eds.), National innovation, indicators and policy (pp. 11-23). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  16. Ford, J. B., Voli, P. K., Honeycutt Jr, E. D., & Casey, S. L. (1998). Gender role portrayals in Japanese advertising. Journal of Advertising, 27(1), 113-124.
  17. Friedricks, S. E. (2014). Sexy sex discrimination. Journal of Corporation Law, 40, 503-520.
  18. Gerbner, G. (1969). Toward "cultural indicators". AV Communication Review, 17, 137-148.
  19. Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Morgan, M., & Signorielli, N. (1986). Living with television. In J. Bryant & D. Zillman (Eds.), Perspectives on media effects (pp. 17-40). Hilldale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  20. Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Morgan, M., Signorielli, N., & Shanahan, J. (2002). Growing up with television. In J. Bryant & D. Zilmann (Eds.), Media effects (2nd ed.) (pp. 43-67). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  21. Ghodrati, Z., Joorabchi, T. N., & Muati, A. (2015). The influence of globalization on "Lookism" in workplace environment of different cultures. Global Media Journal, 13(24), 1-17.
  22. Gibson, R., & Cantijoch, M. (2013). Conceptualizing and measuring participation in the age of the internet. The Journal of Politics, 75(3), 701-716.
  23. Glick, P., & Fiske, S. (1996). The ambivalent sexism inventory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 491-512.
  24. Glick, P., Fiske, S. T., Mlandinic, A., Saiz, J. L., Abrams, D., & Masser, B., et al. (2000). Beyond prejudice as a simple antipathy, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 763-775.
  25. Goldsmith, R. E., & Foxall, G. R. (2003). The measurement of innovativeness. In Larisa V. Shavinia (Ed.). The international handbook on innovation (pp. 321-330). Kidlington, UK: Elsevier Science.
  26. Grabe, M. E., & Drew, D. G. (2007). Crime cultivation. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 51(1), 147-171.
  27. Han, G. S. (1991). A review of the cross-cultural research on the theory of individualism-collectivism. Korean Journal of Psychology: General, 10(1), 1-19.
  28. Han, G. S., & Oh, J. J. (1993). An analysis of children's social interaction. Journal of Social Psychology, 7(1), 185-197.
  29. Harmon, M. D. (2001). Affluenza. Mass Communication & Society, 4(4), 405-418.
  30. Heinberg, L. J., Thompson, J. K., & Stormer, S. (1995). Development and validation of the sociocultural attitudes towards appearance questionnaire. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 17(1), 81-89.<81::AID-EAT2260170111>3.0.CO;2-Y
  31. Ho, H., Shin, W., & Lwin, M. O. (2017). Social networking site use and materialist values among youth. Communication Research, 46(8), 1119-1144. https://doi.org10.1177/0093650216683775
  32. Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations. (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  33. Holroyd, K. A., & Lazarus, R. S. (1982). Stress, coping, and somatic adaptation. In L. Goldgerber and S. Breznitz (Eds.). Handbook of Stress (pp. 21-30). New York, NY: The Free Press.
  34. Hurt, H. T., Joseph, K., & Cook, C. D. (1977). Scales for the measurement of innovativeness. Human Communication Research, 4(1), 58-65.
  35. Hwang, Y. S. (2015). Mobile video contents usage behavior both at home and abroad. Broadcasting Trend & Insight, 3, 19-26.
  36. Inglehart, R., Haerpfer, C., Moreno, A., Welzel, C., Kizilova, K., Diez-Medrano, J., ... & Puranen, B. (2014). World Values Survey: Round Six-Country-Pooled Datafile 2010-2014. JD Systems Institute. Retrieved from
  37. Jang, D. M. (2017). 55-66 Saijeuman jiwonganeung"...daehyeongmateu haengsadoumi oemochabyeol nonlan [Only 55 or 66 sizes available" Market event helper controversy over appearance]. News1. Retrieved from
  38. Jang, H. S., & Kim, T. R. (2006). The effect of mass media on body perception and state esteem of body image. Studies on Korean Youth, 17(2), 57-83.
  39. Jost, J. T., & Banaji, M. R. (1994). The role of stereo- typing in system-justification and the production of false-consciousness. British Journal of Social Psychology, 33, 1-27.
  40. Johnson, T. W., Francis, S. K., & Burns, L. D. (2007). Appearance management behavior and the five-factor model of personality. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 25(3), 230-243.
  41. Kim, E. (1994). Yongmojehan, pyeongdeungbeob wiban [Appearance limitation, violation of equality law]. Samujig Yeoseong (Summer), 50-54.
  42. Korean Women's Development Institute. (2017). An examination of generational value differences for the prospect for a gender equal and sustainable future. Retrieved from
  43. Kwak, H., Zinkhan, G. M., & Dominick, J. R. (2002). The moderating role of gender and compulsive buying tendencies in the cultivation effects of TV show and TV advertising. Media Psychology, 4(1), 77-111.
  44. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York, NY: Springer.