DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Validating Iconic Memory According to the Phenomenological and Ecological Criticisms

현상학적, 생태학적 비판에 기초한 영상기억의 타당성

  • Received : 2019.12.02
  • Accepted : 2019.12.02
  • Published : 2019.12.30

Abstract

Since last several decades, iconic memory has been accepted theoretically valid for its role of the first storage mechanism in visual memory process. However, there have been relatively less interests in iconic memory among researchers than their interests in visual short- and long-term memory. Such little interests seem to arise from a lack of detailed understandings of theories and methodologies about iconic memory and visual persistence. This study aimed to achieve the understandings by reviewing theories and empirical studies of iconic memory and visual persistence. The study further discussed future direction of iconic memory research according to the essential aspects of phenomenological and ecological criticisms against the validity of iconic memory.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 한국연구재단

References

  1. 현주석 (2011). 행동적 연구 사례에 근거한 시각작업기억의 이해. 한국심리학회: 인지 및 생물, 23(1), 45-90.
  2. Adelson, E. H. (1978). Iconic storage: the role of rods. Science, 11, 544-546.
  3. Arita, J. T., Carlisle, N. B., & Woodman, G. F. (2012). (OBSERVATION) Template for rejection:Configuring attention to ignore task-irrelevant features. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38(3), 580-584. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027885
  4. Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K. W. Spence (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory Volume 2 (pp. 89-195). New York: Academic Press.
  5. Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1971). The control of short-term memory. Scientific American, 225(2), 82-90. https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0871-82
  6. Averbach, E., & Coriel, A. S. (1961). Short-term memory in vision. Bell System Technical Journal, 40, 309-328. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1538-7305.1961.tb03987.x
  7. Bays, P. M., Catalao, R. F. G., & Husain, M. (2009). The precision of visual working memory is set by allocation of a shared resource. Journal of Vision, 9(10), 1-11.
  8. Bays, P. M., & Husain, M. (2008). Dynamic shift of limited working memory resources in human vision. Science, 321, 851-854. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1158023
  9. Botta, F., Martin-Arevalo, E., Lupianez, J., & Bartolomeo, P. (2019). Does spatial attention modulate sensory memory? PLoS One, 14(7): e0219504. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0219504
  10. Bradley, C., & Pearson, J. (2012). The sensory components of high-capacity iconic memory and visual working memory. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 355-355. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00355 https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00355
  11. Brady, T. F., Konkle, T., Alvarez, G. A., & Oliva, A. (2008). Visual long-term memory has a massive storage capacity for object details. Procedings of the National Academy of Science, 105(38), 14325-14329. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0803390105
  12. Brady, T. F., Konkle, T., Gill, J., Oliva, A., & Alvarez, G. A. (2013). Visual long-term memory has the same limit on fidelity as visual working memory. Psychological Science, 24(6), 981-990. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612465439
  13. Breitmeyer, B., & Ganz, L. (1976). Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing. Psychological Review, 83, 1-36. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.83.1.1
  14. Breitmeyer, B., Kropfl, W., & Julesz, B. (1982). The existence and role of retinotopic and spatiotopic forms of visual persistence. Acta Psychologica, 52(3), 175-196. https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-6918(82)90007-5
  15. Bridgeman, G., Hendry, D., & Stark, L. (1975). Failure to detect displacement of visual world during saccadic eye movements. Vision Research, 15, 719-722. https://doi.org/10.1016/0042-6989(75)90290-4
  16. Brockmole, J., & Henderson, J. M. (2005). Object appearance, disappearance, and attention prioritization in real-world scenes. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12(6), 1061-1067. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03206444
  17. Brockmole, J., Wang, R. F., & Irwin, D. E. (2002). Temporal integration between visual images and visual percepts. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 28, 315-334. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.28.2.315
  18. Coltheart, M. (1980a). Iconic memory and visible persistence. Perception and Psychophysics, 27(3), 183-228. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03204258
  19. Coltheart, M. (1980b). The persistence of vision. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 290(1038), 57-69.
  20. Coltheart, M., Lea, D., & Thompson, K. (1974). In defense of iconic memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 26, 633-641. https://doi.org/10.1080/14640747408400456
  21. Cowan, N. (2001). The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration of mental storage capacity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24(1), 87-185. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X01003922
  22. Di Lollo, V. (1977). Temporal characteristics of iconic memory. Nature, 267, 241-243. https://doi.org/10.1038/267241a0
  23. Di Lollo, V. (1980). Temporal integration in visual memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 109, 75-97. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.109.1.75
  24. Di Lollo, V., & Dixon, P. (1988). Two forms of persistence in visual information processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 14(4), 671-681. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.14.4.671
  25. Di Lollo, V., Enns, J. T., & Rensink, R. A. (2000). Competition for consciousness among visual events:the psychophyics of reentrant visual processes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 129(4), 481-507. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.129.4.481
  26. Di Lollo, V., Enns, J. T., & Rensink, R. A. (2002). Object substitution without reentry? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 131(4), 594-596. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.131.4.594
  27. Enns, J. T., & Di Lollo, V. (2000). What's new in visual masking. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 345-351. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01520-5
  28. Gayet, S., Paffen, C. L., & Van der Stigchel, S. (2013). INformation matching the content of visual working memory is prioritized for conscious access. Psychological Science, 24(12), 2472-2480. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797613495882
  29. Gegenfurtner, K. R., & Sperling, G. (1993). Information transfer in iconic memory experiments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 19(4), 845-866. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.19.4.845
  30. Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  31. Gilbert, C. D., & Sigman, M. (2007). Brain states: Top-down influences in sensory processing. Neuron, 54(5), 677-696. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2007.05.019
  32. Gowen, E., Abadi, R. V., Poliakoff, E., Hansen, P. C., & Miall, R. C. (2007). Modulation of saccadic intrusions by exogenous and endogenous attention. Brain Research, 13(1141), 154-167.
  33. Haber, R. N. (1983). The impending demise of the icon: A critique of the conscept of iconic storage in visual information processing. Behavior and Brain Science, 6(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X0001428X
  34. Haber, R. N. (1985). An icon can have no worth in the real world: Comments on Loftus, Johnson, and Shimamura's "How much is an icon worth?". Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 11(3), 374-378. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.11.3.374
  35. Hollingworth, A. (2004). Constructing visual representations of natural scenes: The roles of short-and long-term visual memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 30, 519-537. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.30.3.519
  36. Hollingworth, A. (2005). The relationship between online visual representation of a scene and long-term scene memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 31(3), 396-411. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.31.3.396
  37. Hollingworth, A., Hyun, J.-S., & Zhang, W. (2005). The role of visual short-term memory in empty cell localization. Perception & Psychophysics, 67(8), 1332-1343. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03193638
  38. Hollingworth, A., & Luck, S. (2009). The role of visual working memory (VWM) in the control of gaze during visual search. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 71(4), 936-949. https://doi.org/10.3758/APP.71.4.936
  39. Inhoff, A. W., & Rayner, K. (1980). Parafoveal word perception: A case against semantic preprocessing. Perception and Psychophysics, 27, 457-464. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03204463
  40. Irwin, D. E. (1991). Information integration across saccadic eye movements. Cognitive Psychology, 23(3), 420-456. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(91)90015-G
  41. Irwin, D. E. (1992). Perceiving an integrated visual world. In D. E. Meyer & S. Kornblum (Eds.), Attention and Performance XIV: Synergies in Experimental Psycholoyg, Artificial Intelligence, and Cognitive Neuroscience (pp. 121-142). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  42. Irwin, D. E., & Andrews, R. V. (1996). Integration and accumulation of information across saccadic eye movements. In T. Inui & J. L. McClelland (Eds.), Attention and Performance XVI (pp. 125-155). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  43. Irwin, D. E., & Yeomans, J. M. (1986). Sensory registration and informational persistence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 12, 343-360. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.12.3.343
  44. Jonides, J., Irwin, D. E., & Yantis, S. (1982). Integrating visual information from successive fixations. Science, 215, 192-194. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.7053571
  45. Krauskopf, J., Cornsweet, T. N., & Riggs, L. A. (1960). Analysis of eye movements during monocular and binocular fixation. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 50, 572-578. https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.50.000572
  46. Krekelberg, B. (2010). Saccadic suppression. Current Biology, 20, 228-229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2009.12.018
  47. Kutas, M., & Hillyard, S. A. (1980). Reading senseless sentences: Brain potentials reflect semantic incongruity. Science, 207, 203-205. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.7350657
  48. Lamme, V. A., & Roelfsema, P. R. (2000). The distict models of vision offered by feedforward and recurrent processing. Trends in Neurosciences, 23(11), 571-579. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-2236(00)01657-X
  49. Lee, S. H., & Blake, R. (2004). A fresh look at interocular grouping during binocular rivalry. Vision Research, 44, 983-991. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2003.12.007
  50. Luck, S. J., & Hollingworth, A. (2008). Visual Memory. New York: Oxford University Press.
  51. Luck, S. J., & Vogel, E. K. (1997). The capacity of visual working memory for features and conjunctions. Nature, 390, 279-281. https://doi.org/10.1038/36846
  52. Luck, S. J., & Vogel, E. K. (2013). Visual working memory capacity: from psychophysics and neurobiology to individual differences. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17(8), 391-400. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2013.06.006
  53. Luck, S. J., Vogel, E. K., & Shapiro, K. L. (1996). Word meanings can be accessed but not reported during the attentional blink. Nature, 382, 616-618. https://doi.org/10.1038/382616a0
  54. Matin, E. (1974). Saccadic suppression: A review and an analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 81, 899-917. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0037368
  55. McConkie, G. W., & Zola, D. (1979). Is visual information integrated across successive fixations in reading? Perception & Psychophysics, 25(3), 221-224. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03202990
  56. Neisser, U. (1967). Cognitive Psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
  57. Ogmen, H., & Herzog, M. H. (2016). A new conceptualization of human visual sensory-memory. Frontiers in Psychology, 7.
  58. Pearson, J., & Brascamp, J. (2008). Sensory memory for ambiguous vision. Trends in Cognitive Science, 12(9), 334-341. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2008.05.006
  59. Phillips, I. B. (2011). Perception and iconic memory: What Sperling doesn't show. Mind & Language, 26(4), 381-411. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0017.2011.01422.x
  60. Pollatsek, A., & Rayner, K. (1992). What is integrated across fixations? In K. Rayner (Ed.), Eye Movements and Visual Cognition (pp. 166-191). New York: Springer.
  61. Pratte, M. S. (2018). Iconic memories dies a sudden death. Psychological Science, 29, 877-887. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797617747118
  62. Rayner, K. (1998). Eye movements in reading and information processing: Twenty years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 372-422. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.124.3.372
  63. Rayner, K., McConkie, G. W., & Ehrlich, S. (1978). Eye movements and integrating information across fixations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 4(4), 529-544. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.4.4.529
  64. Remington, R. W. (1980). Attention and saccadic eye movements. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 6, 726-744. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.6.4.726
  65. Rensink, R. A. (2014). Limits to the usability of iconic memory. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 971-971. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00971 https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00971
  66. Richard, W. (1968). Saccadic suppression. The Optical Society of America, 59(5), 617-623.
  67. Riggs, L. A., Volkmann, F. C., & Moore, R. K. (1981). Suppression of the blackout due to blinks. Vision Research, 21(7), 1075-1079. https://doi.org/10.1016/0042-6989(81)90012-2
  68. Ruff, C. C., Kristjansson, A., & Driver, J. (2007). Readout from iconic memory and selective spatial attention involve similar neural processes. Psychological Science, 18(10), 901-909. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01998.x
  69. Sekuler, R., Sekuler, A. B., & Lau, R. (1997). Sound alters visual motion perception. Nature, 385, 308. https://doi.org/10.1038/385308a0
  70. Senturk, G., Greenberg, A. S., & Liu, T. (2016). Saccade latency indexes exogenous and endogenous object-based attention. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 78(7), 1998-2013. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-016-1136-1
  71. Sperling, G. (1960). The information available in brief visual presentations. Psychological Monographs, 74(11, Whole No. 498), 1-29.
  72. Sperling, G. (1963). A model for visual memory tasks. Human Factors, 5, 19-31. https://doi.org/10.1177/001872086300500103
  73. Sugita, Y., Hidaka, S., & Teramoto, W. (2018). Visual percepts modify iconic memory in humans. Scientific Reports, 8(13396).
  74. Turvey, M. (1977). Contrasting orientations to the theory of visual information processing. Psychological Review, 84(1), 67-88. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.1.67
  75. Turvey, M. (1978). Visual processing and short-term memory. In W. K. Estes (Ed.), Handbook of learning & cognitive processes: V. Human information (pp. 91-142). Oxford, England: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  76. Tye, M. (2003). Consciousness and Persons. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  77. Vandenbroucke, A. R., Sligte, I. G., Barrett, A. B., K., S. A., Fahrenfort, J. J., & Lamme, V. A. (2014). Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations. Psychological Science, 25(4), 861-873. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797613516146
  78. Vogel, E. K., Woodman, G. F., & Luck, S. J. (2001). Storage of features, conjunctions and objects in visual working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 27(1), 92-114. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.27.1.92
  79. Vogel, E. K., Woodman, G. F., & Luck, S. J. (2006). The time course of consolidation in visual working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 32(6), 1436-1451. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.32.6.1436
  80. Weisstein, N., & Wong, E. (1986). Figure-ground organization and the spatial and temporal responses of the visual system. In E. C. Schwab & H. C. Nusbaum (Eds.), Pattern Recognition by Humans and Machines (Vol. 2, Visual Perception): Academic Press.
  81. Whitten, D. N., & Brown, K. T. (1973). The time courses of late receptor potentials from monkey cones and rods. Vision Research, 13, 107-135. https://doi.org/10.1016/0042-6989(73)90168-5
  82. Woodman, G. F., & Luck, S. (2007). Do the contents of visual working memory automatically influence attentional selection during visual search? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 33(2), 363-377. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.33.2.363
  83. Yi, D.-J., Woodman, G. F., Widders, D., Marois, R., & Chun, M. M. (2004). Neural fate of ignored stimuli: dissociable effects of perceptual and working memory load. Nature Neuroscience, 7(9), 992-996. https://doi.org/10.1038/nn1294
  84. Zhang, W., & Luck, S. J. (2008). Discrete fixed-resolution representations in visual working memory. Nature, 453, 233-235. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06860
  85. Zhang, W., & Luck, S. J. (2009). Sudden death and gradual decay in wisual working memory. Psychological Science, 20(4), 423-428. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02322.x