Patient Expectations of Visiting Department of Oral Medicine for Burning Mouth Syndrome: Relationship between Expectations and Clinical and Psychological Characteristics

  • Kim, Hye-Kyoung (Department of Oral Medicine, College of Dentistry, Dankook University) ;
  • Kim, Mee-Eun (Department of Oral Medicine, College of Dentistry, Dankook University)
  • Received : 2019.11.22
  • Accepted : 2019.12.03
  • Published : 2019.12.30


Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate the expectation of patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and assess the relationship between patient expectations and clinical and psychological characteristics. Methods: Eligibility was retrospectively assessed on 93 patients with BMS. A total of five questionnaires on patients' expectation for a visit, pain, sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), cognition (Pain Catastrophizing Scale) and psychological distress (Symptom Checklist-90 revised) were measured. Results: Sixty-five patients were included in this study. The top 3 priorities of expectation for a treatment visit to the Department of Oral Medicine were as following; "I want my pain to be free"; "I want to understand why it hurts"; "I want to communicate better with doctors about pain". Patients with priority of pain relief showed poor sleep quality than patients who are more interested in the disease related information. Conclusions: To improve treatment outcomes of BMS, clinicians should improve their own understanding of patients who are suffering from BMS. Inquiring about the patient expectations may be one of them, and it would contribute to the enhancement of patients' overall well-being.


  1. Souza FT, Santos TP, Bernardes VF, et al. The impact of burning mouth syndrome on health-related quality of life. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2011;9:57.
  2. IASP orofacial pain fact sheet. Burning mouth syndrome [Internet]. Washington, D.C.: International Association for the study of pain; c2016 [(updated 2016 Sep) cited 2019 Nov 15]. Available from:
  3. Feller L, Fourie J, Bouckaert M, Khammissa RAG, Ballyram R, Lemmer J. Burning mouth syndrome: aetiopathogenesis and principles of management. Pain Res Manag 2017;2017:1926269.
  4. Lopez-Jornet P, Camacho-Alonso F, Lucero-Berdugo M. Quality of life in patients with burning mouth syndrome. J Oral Pathol Med 2008;37:389-394.
  5. Ni Riordain R, Moloney E, O'Sullivan K, McCreary C. Burning mouth syndrome and oral health-related quality of life: is there a change over time? Oral Dis 2010;16:643-647.
  6. Tu TTH, Takenoshita M, Matsuoka H, et al. Current management strategies for the pain of elderly patients with burning mouth syndrome: a critical review. Biopsychosoc Med 2019;13:1.
  7. Lee GS, Kim HK, Kim ME. Relevance of sleep, pain cognition, and psychological distress with regard to pain in patients with burning mouth syndrome. Cranio 2019. doi: 10.1080/08869634.2019.1681621. [Epub ahead of print]
  8. Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS). The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta version). Cephalalgia 2013;33:629-808.
  9. Cleeland CS, Ryan KM. Pain assessment: global use of the Brief Pain Inventory. Ann Acad Med Singapore 1994;23:129-138.
  10. Yun YH, Mendoza TR, Heo DS, et al. Development of a cancer pain assessment tool in Korea: a validation study of a Korean version of the brief pain inventory. Oncology 2004;66:439-444.
  11. Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF 3rd, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Res 1989;28:193-213.
  12. Sullivan MJL, Bishop SR, Pivik J. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale: development and validation. Psychol Assess 1995;74:524-532.
  13. Derogatis LR. SCL-90-R, administration, scoring & procedures manual. Baltimore (MD): Clinical Psychology Research; 1977.
  14. Adamo D, Pecoraro G, Fortuna G, et al. Assessment of oral health-related quality of life, measured by OHIP-14 and GOHAI, and psychological profiling in burning mouth syndrome: a casecontrol clinical study. J Oral Rehabil 2020;47:42-52.
  15. Drage LA, Rogers RS 3rd. Burning mouth syndrome. Dermatol Clin 2003;21:135-145.
  16. Adamo D, Schiavone V, Aria M, et al. Sleep disturbance in patients with burning mouth syndrome: a case-control study. J Orofac Pain 2013;27:304-313.
  17. Benoliel R, Zini A, Zakuto A, et al. Subjective sleep quality in temporomandibular disorder patients and association with disease characteristics and oral health-related quality of life. J Oral Facial Pain Headache 2017;31:313-322.
  18. Keilani M, Crevenna R, Dorner TE. Sleep quality in subjects suffering from chronic pain. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2018;130:31-36.
  19. Adamo D, Sardella A, Varoni E, et al. The association between burning mouth syndrome and sleep disturbance: a case-control multicentre study. Oral Dis 2018;24:638-649.