Interleukin-8 and Matrix Metalloprotease 9 as Salivary Biomarkers of Pain in Patients with Temporomandibular Disorder Myalgia: A Pilot Study

  • Park, Yang Mi (Department of Oral Medicine, Dental Research Institute, Pusan National University Dental Hospital) ;
  • Ahn, Yong-Woo (Department of Oral Medicine, Dental Research Institute, Pusan National University Dental Hospital) ;
  • Jeong, Sung-Hee (Department of Oral Medicine, Dental Research Institute, Pusan National University Dental Hospital) ;
  • Ju, Hye-Min (Department of Oral Medicine, Dental Research Institute, Pusan National University Dental Hospital) ;
  • Jeon, Hye-Mi (Department of Oral Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital) ;
  • Kim, Kyung-Hee (Department of Oral Medicine, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital) ;
  • Ok, Soo-Min (Department of Oral Medicine, Dental Research Institute, Pusan National University Dental Hospital)
  • Received : 2019.11.25
  • Accepted : 2019.12.20
  • Published : 2019.12.30


Purpose: To search the salivary factors that objectively indicate an pain in myalgia patients with temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) and determine the possibility of the factors as pain-biomarkers. Methods: Participants consisted of pain-free 15 persons (male 7, female 8, mean age±standard deviation (SD); 26.8±16.04 years) and 45 myalgia patients with TMD (male 21, female 24, mean age±SD; 27.98±13.01 years). They were divided into a pain-free group (numerical rating scale [NRS] score 0), a mild pain group (NRS 1-4), a moderate pain group (NRS 5-6), and a severe pain group (NRS 7-10) and members of all groups were age, sex matched. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP-9) were selected as pain biomarkers, by searching the Gene Expression Omnibus database and analyzing pain-related genes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to measure the concentration of IL-8 and MMP-9 in the patients' saliva. Results: IL-8 and MMP-9 levels were statistically significantly higher in pain groups than in the pain-free group. Greater differences were observed in patients with acute pain (with painful duration under 3 months) than in the control group and in female patients than in male. Conclusions: Salivary IL-8 and MMP-9 may play a role as biomarkers of myalgia in patients with TMD.


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