DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Investigation on the Safety of Hydroquinone and Preservatives among Whitening Functional Cosmetics Containing Albutin in Korea

국내 유통 알부틴 함유 미백 기능성화장품 중 히드로퀴논 및 살균보존제 안전성 조사

  • Cho, Joong Hee (Division of Pharmaceuticals Analysis on the Food and Drug Administration, Institute of Public Health and Environment in Incheon Metropolitan City) ;
  • Kim, Ji Hyeung (Division of Pharmaceuticals Analysis on the Food and Drug Administration, Institute of Public Health and Environment in Incheon Metropolitan City) ;
  • Eom, Sun Ah (Division of Pharmaceuticals Analysis on the Food and Drug Administration, Institute of Public Health and Environment in Incheon Metropolitan City) ;
  • Kang, Min Jeong (Division of Pharmaceuticals Analysis on the Food and Drug Administration, Institute of Public Health and Environment in Incheon Metropolitan City) ;
  • Han, Young Sun (Division of Pharmaceuticals Analysis on the Food and Drug Administration, Institute of Public Health and Environment in Incheon Metropolitan City) ;
  • Hur, Myong Je (Division of Pharmaceuticals Analysis on the Food and Drug Administration, Institute of Public Health and Environment in Incheon Metropolitan City)
  • 조중희 (인천광역시 보건환경연구원 식의약연구부 약품분석과) ;
  • 김지형 (인천광역시 보건환경연구원 식의약연구부 약품분석과) ;
  • 엄선아 (인천광역시 보건환경연구원 식의약연구부 약품분석과) ;
  • 강민정 (인천광역시 보건환경연구원 식의약연구부 약품분석과) ;
  • 한영선 (인천광역시 보건환경연구원 식의약연구부 약품분석과) ;
  • 허명제 (인천광역시 보건환경연구원 식의약연구부 약품분석과)
  • Received : 2019.12.03
  • Accepted : 2019.12.26
  • Published : 2019.12.30

Abstract

Arbutin, which is used as a whitening ingredient, can produce hydroquinone, known as causing skin disease and carcinogen. Preservatives are essential to prevent microbial contamination during long-term storage and use of cosmetics, but safety issues such as toxicity and skin irritation are being raised. This study was conducted to determine hydroquinone and 21 preservatives levels in 40 arbutin-containing whitening functional cosmetics sold on-line and off-line. Result showed that 9 products contained hydroquinone. The concentrations in 7 products were ranged from 0.3 to 0.9 ppm, which were within the maximum allowed amount established by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. However, 2 products were 8.4 and 50.5 ppm and exceeded the allowed amount. Preservatives were detected 20 products. Detected items and ranges were phenoxy ethanol 0.1 ~ 0.7% (N = 15), Methyl paraben 0.19 ~ 0.21% (N = 2), Chlorphenesin 0.13% (N = 1), chlorhexidine 0.006% (N = 1), Propyl paraben 0.06% (N = 1), which were within maximum allowed amount established by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Also, in cases of functional cosmetics the phrase "functional cosmetics" should be expressed on the primary or secondary package of cosmetics by cosmetics act. However, 1 product did not state the phrase as functional cosmetics. This study suggest that preservatives were safely managed. However, hydroquinone in hydroquinone-detected products could be produced by the decomposition of arbutin. Thus, further studies on the decomposition of arbutin are required to improve the quality control of the cosmetics.

References

  1. J. S. Song, Y. A. Kim, A study on the future market prospect of domestic functional cosmetics industry- Focused on the cosmeceutical products, JKSDC, 15(4), 258 (2009).
  2. E. H. Kim, A study of whitening cosmetics from natural products, Asian J Beauty Cosmetol, 4(2), 195 (2006).
  3. E. Skrzypczak-Pietraszeka, I. Kwiecien, A. Goldyn, and J. Pietraszek, HPLC-DAD analysis of arbutin produced from hydroquinone in a biotransformation process in Origanum majorana L. shoot culture, Phytochem. Lett., 20, 443 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytol.2017.01.009
  4. N. Mustapha, I. Mokdad-Bzeouich, M. Maatouk, K. Ghedira, T. Hennebelle, and L. Chekir-Ghedira, Antitumoral, antioxidant, and antimelanogenesis potencies of Hawthorn, a potential natural agent in the treatment of melanoma, Melanoma Res., 26(3), 211 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1097/CMR.0000000000000240
  5. Y. H. Jin, S. J. Lee, M. H. Chung, J. H. Park, Y. I. Park, T. H. Cho, and S. K. Lee. Aloesin and arbutin inhibit tyrosinase activity in a synergistic manner via a different action mechanism, Arch. Pharm. Res., 22(3), 232 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02976355
  6. K. Maeda, M. Fukuda, Arbutin: mechanism of its depigmenting action in human melanocyte culture, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 276(2), 765 (1996).
  7. J. S. Jeon, B. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, H. J. Kwon, H. J. Bae, S. K. Kim, J. A. Park, J. H. Shim, A. M. Abd El-Aty, and H. C. Shin, Simultaneous determination of arbutin and its decomposed product hydroquinone, in whitening creams using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection: Effect of temperature and pH on decomposition, Int J Cosmet Sci, 37(6), 567 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1111/ics.12228
  8. S. H. Bang, S. J. Han, and D. H. Kim, Hydrolysis of arbutin to hydroquinone by human skin bacteria and its effect on antioxidant activity, J Cosmet Dermatol, 7(3), 189 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-2165.2008.00387.x
  9. M. Matsumoto, H. Todo, T. Akiyama, M. Hirata-Koizumi, K. Sugibayashi, Y. Ikarashi, A. Ono, A. Hirose, and K. Yokoyama, Risk assessment of skin lightening cosmetics containing hydroquinone, Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacl., 81, 128 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2016.08.005
  10. G. B. Park and S. G. Lee, Simultaneous determination of parabens in cosmetics by LC/MS, Anal. Sci. Technol., 23(1), 54 (2010). https://doi.org/10.5806/AST.2010.23.1.054
  11. H. S. Ahn, J. E. Nah, J. E. Lee, Y. S. OH, and M. C. Gye, Toxicity and endocrine disrupting effect of parabens, Korean J. Environ. Biol., 27(4), 323 (2009).
  12. H. Mizuno, H. Hirai, S. Kawai, and T. Nishida, Removal of estrogenic acitivity of iso-butylparaben and n-butylparaben by laccase in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole, Biodegradation, 20(4), 533 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10532-008-9242-y
  13. N. Veldhoen, R. C. Skirrow, H. Osachoff, H. Wigmore, D. J. Clapson, M. P. Gunderson, G. V. Aggelen, and C. C. Helbing. The bactericidal agent triclosan modulates thyroid hormone-associated gene expression and disrupts postembryonic anuran development, Aquat. Toxicol., 80(3), 217 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.08.010
  14. H. D. Lim, Master's Thesis Dissertation, Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju, Korea (2015).
  15. S. H. Kim, Master's Thesis Dissertation, Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju, Korea (2015).
  16. S. J. Kim, J. W. Hwang, J. R. Park, Y. G. Lee, J. H. Chung, Y. H. Jeong, S. J. lee, J. W. Junh, J. Y. Jung, Y. S. Lee, and K. S. Kang, Assessment of pubertal development to parabens-induced estrogenic effect in male mice, J. Food Hyg. Saf., 21(4), 197 (2006).
  17. M. Bruze, M. Isaksson, B. Gruvberger, K. E. Andersen, M. Goncalo, A. Goossens, J. D. Johansen, H. I. Maibach, T. Rustemeyer, C. J. Le Coz, and I. R. White, Patch testing with methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone 200 ppm aq. detects significantly more contact allergy than 100 ppm. A multicentre study within the European Environmental and Contact Dermatitis Research Group, Contact Derm., 71(1), 31 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1111/cod.12241
  18. M. H. Oh, S. S. Kim, D. J. Kim, H. J. Kim, S. W. Shin, M. S. Choi, D. S. Kim, and B. K. Choi, Studies on analytical methods of chlorhexidine gluconate by high performance liquid chromatography, Int. J. Pharm., 7(1), 7 (2012).
  19. E. S. Agorku, E. E. Kwaansa‑Ansah, R. B. Voegborlo, P. Amegbletor, and F. Opoku, Mercury and hydroquinone content of skin toning creams and cosmetic soaps, and the potential risks to the health of Ghanaian women, Springerplus, 5, 319 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-1967-1
  20. W. X. Tong, J. X. Li, and D. H. Liu, Effects of basic environmental conditions of cosmetic matrix on the stability of ${\beta}$-arbutin, Deterg. Cosmet., 33, 15 (2010).
  21. J. S. Jeon, S. H. Lee, H. J. Kwon, H. J. Bae and B. H. Kim, The report of Gyeonggi-do institute of health & environment, Gyeonggi-do institute of health & environment, 27, 25, Gyeonggi-do, Gyeonggi-do (2015).
  22. J. H. Park, J. P. Kim, J. A. Kim, K. W. Seo, E. S. Kim, and J. M. Seo, Survey of preservatives and UV filter ingredients of distributed sunblock products in Korea, J. Cosmet. Sci. Korea, 43(4), 381 (2017).
  23. A. Schnuch, G. Mildau, E. M. Kratz, and W. Uter, Risk of sensitization to preservatives estimated on the basis of patch test data and exposure, according to a sample of 3541 leave-on products, Contact Derm., 65(3), 167 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0536.2011.01939.x