DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Simultaneous quantitative analysis of four isothiazolinones and 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate in hygienic consumer products

Heo, Jin Ju;Kim, Un-Jung;Oh, Jeong-Eun

  • Received : 2018.04.12
  • Accepted : 2018.06.23
  • Published : 2019.03.31

Abstract

In this study, extraction, clean-up and instrumental analytical conditions were optimized for identifying and quantifying methyl-, chloromethylbenzi-, octyl- isothiazolinone (MIT, CMIT, BIT, OIT) and 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate (IPBC), widely used biocidal active ingredients in human hygiene consumer products. Accuracy of the developed ultrasonic assisted extraction method followed by HPLC/MS analysis for four isothiazolinones and IPBC ranged between 60.4% and 113% in various types of consumer product samples. Method detection limits ranged 0.011-0.034 mg/kg for wet wipes, 0.57-1.5 mg/kg for liquid detergent and 0.58-1.6 mg/kg for powder detergent. Wet wipes, powder and liquid detergents collected from local market in Korea were analyzed to demonstrate the applicability of the developed method. Even after the regulation of those compounds in wet wipes, CMIT, MIT and IPBC were still frequently detected from complementary wet wipes without brand labels which were distributed to customers at local retail shops and restaurants. The maximum observed concentrations of MIT and CMIT found in those complementary wet wipes were 70.2 mg/kg and 11.3 mg/kg, respectively.

Keywords

Biocidal active ingredient;Consumer products;Detergent;UAE-HPLC/MS;Wet wipes

References

  1. "Biocide". Wikipedia [Internet]. c2016 [cited 13 March 2016]. Available from: http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biocide.
  2. Cincinnati O. NEPIS Document display [Internet]. Available from: http://www.nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyNET.exe (accessed November 15, 2015).
  3. Rafoth A, Gabriel S, Sacher F, Brauch HJ. Analysis of isothiazolinones in environmental waters by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A. 2007;1164:74-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2007.07.040
  4. Bester K, Lamani X. Determination of biocides as well as some biocide metabolites from facade run-off waters by solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatographic separation and tandem mass spectrometry detection. J. Chromatogr. A. 2010;1217:5204-5214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2010.06.020
  5. Alvarez-Rivera G, Dagnac T, Lores M, et al. Determination of isothiazolinone preservatives in cosmetics and household products by matrix solid-phase dispersion followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A. 2012;1270:41-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2012.10.063
  6. Speksnijder P, van Ravestijn J, de Voogt P. Trace analysis of isothiazolinones in water samples by large-volume direct injection liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A. 2010;1217:5184-5189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2010.06.010
  7. Kahrilas GA, Blotevogel J, Stewart PS, Borch T. Biocides in hydraulic fracturing fluids: A critical review of their usage, mobility, degradation, and toxicity. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015;49:16-32. https://doi.org/10.1021/es503724k
  8. Basketter DA, Rodford R, Kimber I, Smith I, Wahlberg JE. Skin sensitization risk assessment: A comparative evaluation of 3 isothiazolinone biocides. Contact Dermatitis 1999;40:150-154. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0536.1999.tb06013.x
  9. Boyapati A, Tam M, Tate B, Lee A, Palmer A, Nixon R. Allergic contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone: exposure from baby wipes causing hand dermatitis. Australas. J. Dermatol. 2013;54:264-267. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajd.12062
  10. Fewings J, Menne T. An update of the risk assessment for methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) with focus on rinse-off products. Contact Dermatitis 1999;41:1-13. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0536.1999.tb06200.x
  11. c2015 [cited 21 November 2015]. Available from: http://www.pressian.com/news/article.html?no=5857 [Internet].
  12. Park DU, Friesen MC, Roh HS, et al. Estimating retrospective exposure of household humidifier disinfectants. Indoor Air. 2015;25:631-640. https://doi.org/10.1111/ina.12180
  13. c2015 [cited 21 November 2015]. Available from: http://www.kcma.or.kr/chemicals/chemicalss1_1.asp [Internet].
  14. c2015 [cited 21 November 2015]. Available from: http://www.kats.go.kr/content.do?cmsid=239&cid=10961&mode=view [Internet].
  15. Chen ZF, Ying GG, Lai HJ, et al. Determination of biocides in different environmental matrices by use of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2012;404:3175-3188. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-012-6444-2
  16. Lundov MD, Kolarik B, Bossi R, Gunnarsen L, Johansen JD. Emission of isothiazolinones from water-based paints. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2014;48:6989-6994. https://doi.org/10.1021/es500236m
  17. Frauen M, Steinhart H, Rapp C, Hintze U. Rapid quantification of iodopropynyl butylcarbamate as the preservative in cosmetic formulations using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. J. Pharmaceut. Biomed. 2001;25:965-970. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0731-7085(01)00356-9
  18. Lin QB, Wang TJ, Song H, Li B. Analysis of isothiazolinone biocides in paper for food packaging by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Food. Addit. Contam. Part A. 2010;27:1775-1781. https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2010.521896
  19. Singer H, Jaus S, Hanke I, Luck A, Hollender J, Alder AC. Determination of biocides and pesticides by on-line solid phase extraction coupled with mass spectrometry and their behaviour in wastewater and surface water. Environ. Pollut. 2010;158:3054-3064. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2010.06.013
  20. Wittenberg JB, Canas BJ, Zhou W, Wang PG, Rua D, Krynitsky AJ. Determination of methylisothiazolinone and methylchloroisothiazolinone in cosmetic products by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. J. Sep. Sci. 2015;38:2983-2988. https://doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201500365
  21. Rosero-Moreano M, Canellas E, Nerin C. Three-phase hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction combined with HPLC-UV for the determination of isothiazolinone biocides in adhesives used for food packaging materials. J. Sep. Sci. 2014;37:272-280. https://doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201300840
  22. c2016 [cited 12 December 2016]. Available from: http://www.sveff.se/files/2015/04/CEPE-guidance-on-labelling-with-biocidesskin-sensitizers-final-28-Oct-14.pdf [Internet].
  23. Burnett CL, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, et al. Final report of the safety assessment of methylisothiazolinone. Int. J. Toxicol. 2010;29:187S-213S. https://doi.org/10.1177/1091581810374651
  24. Krzywkowski K, Tonning K, Schwensen JF, Johansen JD. Survey and exposure assessment of methylisothiazolinone in consumer products. The Danish Environmental Protection Agency; 2015. p. 18-71.
  25. Cuesta L, Silvestre JF, Toledo F, Ballester I, Betlloch I. Not detected by the baseline series of the Spanish group. Contact Dermatitis 2010;62:250-251. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0536.2010.01700.x
  26. Gonzalez-Munoz P, Conde-Salazar L, Vano-Galvan S. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products. Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas (English edition) 2014;105:822-832. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ad.2013.12.018
  27. Schwensen JF, Menne T, Andersen KE, Sommerlund M, Johansen JD. Occupations at risk of developing contact allergy to isothiazolinones in Danish contact dermatitis patients: Results from a Danish multicentre study (2009-2012). Contact Dermatitis 2014;71:295-302. https://doi.org/10.1111/cod.12286
  28. Schettgen T, Bertram J, Kraus T. Quantification of N-methylmalonamic acid in urine as metabolite of the biocides methylisothiazolinone and chloromethylisothiazolinone using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. B. 2017;1044-1045:185-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2017.01.019
  29. Schettgen T, Kraus T. Urinary excretion kinetics of the metabolite N-methylmalonamic acid (NMMA) after oral dosage of chloromethylisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone in human volunteers. Arch. Toxicol. 2017;91:3835-3841. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-017-2051-5

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Korean Ministry of Environment (MOE)