Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of commercial RTD cold brew coffees

RTD (Ready-to-drink) 콜드브루커피의 이화학 및 감각특성 분석

  • Song, Young-Ju (Department of Culinary and Food Service Management, Sejong University) ;
  • Hwang, Hyun-Ju (Culinary Arts, Woosong College) ;
  • Lee, Seung-Joo (Department of Culinary and Food Service Management, Sejong University)
  • 송영주 (세종대학교 조리외식경영학과) ;
  • 황현주 (우송정보대학 외식조리과) ;
  • 이승주 (세종대학교 조리외식경영학과)
  • Received : 2018.11.02
  • Accepted : 2019.01.09
  • Published : 2019.02.28


The sensory characteristics of eight commercial ready-to-drink (RTD) cold brew coffees were compared by descriptive analysis. The cold brew coffee samples were analyzed for hunter color values, brown color, turbidity, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, total phenolic content, and chlorogenic acid content. Three appearances, nine aroma, five flavor/taste, and four texture/mouth-feel related sensory attributes were evaluated by a panel of nine judges. The results of three-way analysis of variance of descriptive data showed that all sensory attributes except "fruit" aroma, "dark chocolate" aroma, "bitter" aroma, and "sweet" taste had significant differences among the samples (p<0.05). Based on the principal component analysis (PCA) of the descriptive data, the samples were primarily separated by first and second principal components, which accounted for 81.78% of the total variance among the samples with high intensities of "nutty aroma", "grain aroma", and "grain taste" versus "earth aroma", "sour aroma", "sour taste", "astringent", "smoothness", and "residual". In the correlation analysis of sensory terms and physicochemical parameters, titratable acidity and soluble solids showed significant positive correlations with earth aroma and smoothness characteristics.


descriptive analysis;RTD;cold brew coffee;physicochemical characteristics;sensory analysis

SPGHB5_2019_v51n1_35_f0001.png 이미지

Fig. 1. Principal component analysis (PCA) loadings for (a) sensory attributes and (b) eight commercial cold brew coffee samples.

Table 1. Materials and their ingredients of eight commercial coldbrew coffees

SPGHB5_2019_v51n1_35_t0001.png 이미지

Table 2. Sensory code, attributes, definitions, and physical standards of cold brew coffee samples

SPGHB5_2019_v51n1_35_t0002.png 이미지

Table 5. Matrix of correlations between sensory attributes and physicochemical parameters in eight commercial cold brew coffeesamples

SPGHB5_2019_v51n1_35_t0003.png 이미지

Table 3. Mean sensory attribute intensity ratings for eight commercial cold brew coffee samples determined by descriptive analysis from a panel of nine judges over duplicate replications

SPGHB5_2019_v51n1_35_t0004.png 이미지

Table 4. Physicochemical characteristics of eight commercial cold brew coffee samples

SPGHB5_2019_v51n1_35_t0005.png 이미지


Supported by : 국가식품클러스터 지원센터


  1. Andueza S, Vila MA, Pena MP, Cid C. Influence of coffee/water ratio on the final quality of espresso coffee. J. Sci. Food Agric. 87: 586-592 (2007)
  2. Choi YM, Yoon HH. Sensory characteristics of espresso coffee in relation to the classification of green Arabica coffee. Korean J. Food Cook. Sci. 26: 300-306 (2010)
  3. Ha BS, Cho MR. All about coffee. Openspace Publisher, Seoul, Korea. pp. 28-132 (2012)
  4. Hwang SH, Kim KS, Kang HJ, Kim MJ. Phenolic compound contents and antioxidative effects on Dutch coffee by extraction time. Korean Publ. Health Res. 39: 21-29 (2013)
  5. Hwang SH, Kim KS, Kang HJ, Kim JH, Kim MJ. Studies on the flavor compounds of Dutch coffee by headspace GC-MS. Korean J. Food Cook. Sci. 30: 596-602 (2014)
  6. Illy A, Viani R. Espresso Coffee: The Science of Quality, Second Edition, Elsevier Academic Press. San Diego, CA, USA. pp. 91-315 (2015)
  7. Kim HS, Ahn JJ, Hwang TY. Screening of DPPH radical scavenging and antimicrobial activity of extracts from local some native plants. Korea J. Food Preserv. 21: 593-599 (2014)
  8. Kim AR, Kim JS. Flavor contributing nonvolatile chemical and sensory characterization of cold water extraction-based coffee by different extraction methods (dripping vs steeping) and time. J. Korea Soc. Coffee Ind. 3: 1-9 (2014a)
  9. Kim YA, Kim JS. Bitter taste-inducing chemical composition profile and sensory characterization of Arabica coffee as affected by the degree of roasting. J. Korea Soc. Coffee Ind. 3: 10-18 (2014b)
  10. Korea Agro-Fisheries & Food Trade Corporation (aT), Nielsen Company Korea. Processed Food Segmentation Report-coffee. Ministry of Agriculture Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA), Registration number: 11-15430000-000060-01, Mirae C&P system (2013)
  11. Kuroda Y, Hara Y. Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activity of tea polyphenols. Mutat. Res. 436: 69-97 (1999)
  12. Lee MJ, Kim SE, Kim JH, Lee SW, Yeum DM, A study of coffee bean characteristics and coffee flavors in relation to roasting. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 42: 255-261 (2013)
  13. Lee JC, Pae SI. A study on the sensory properties according to roasting conditions of coffee beans by continents. Inter. J. Tourism & Hospitality Res. 28: 233-248 (2014)
  14. Lee SJ, Park CS, Kim HK. Sensory profiling of commercial Korean distilled Soju. Korean J. Food Sci Technol. 44: 648-652 (2012)
  15. Lee JW, Shin HS. Physicochemical properties of antioxidant fractions extracted from freeze-dried coffee by various solvents. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 28: 109-116 (1996)
  16. Macrae R, Clarke R. Coffee, Vol. 2., Technology. Elsevier Applied Science Publisher, Ltd. London, UK. pp 25-45 (1987)
  17. Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Korean Food Standards Codex, p 27. Available from: Sep. 9, 2016.
  18. Morton C, Klatsky AL, Udaltsova N. Smoking, coffee and pancreatitis. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 99: 731-738 (2004)
  19. Park SJ, Moon SW, Lee J, Kim EJ, Kang BS. Optimization of roasting conditions for coffee beans by response surface methodology. Korean J. Food Pres. 18: 178-183 (2011)
  20. Pyo YH, Lee TC, Logendra L, Rogen RT. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of Swiss chard extracts. Food Chem. 85: 19-26 (2004)
  21. Schlich P. Uses of change-over designs and repeated measurements in sensory and consumer studies. Food Qual. Prefer. 4: 223-235 (1993)
  22. Shin YR, Choi YM, Yoon HH. The sensory characteristics of espresso according to grinding grades of coffee beans. Korean J. Food Cook. Sci. 27: 85-99 (2011)
  23. So YJ, Lee MW, Yoo KM, Kang HJ, Hwang IK. Physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of Dutch coffee depending on different extraction conditions and storage. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 46: 671-676 (2014)