Antimelanogenic effect and whitening of crude polysaccharide fraction extracted from Perilla frutescens Britton var. acuta Kudo

자소엽(Perilla frutescens Britton var. acuta Kudo) 조다당의 멜라닌 생성 저해 및 미백효과

  • Cho, Eun-Ji (Department of Food Science and Technology, Kongju National University) ;
  • Byun, Eui-Hong (Department of Food Science and Technology, Kongju National University)
  • 조은지 (공주대학교 식품공학과) ;
  • 변의홍 (공주대학교 식품공학과)
  • Received : 2018.10.17
  • Accepted : 2019.01.22
  • Published : 2019.02.28


In this study, the inhibitory effects of crude polysaccharide fractions separated from Perilla frutescens Britton var. acuta Kudo (PCP) on melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity were observed. B16F10 melanoma cells were treated with 125 and $250{\mu}g/mL$ of PCP for 24 hours. Using these optimal concentrations, inhibition of melanin synthesis inhibition was measured, and PCP treatment significantly reduced melanin synthesis induced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). In addition, western blotting analysis on B16F10 melanoma cells showed that PCP inhibited tyrosinase, microphthalmia-associated transcriptipn factor, tyrosinase related protein-1, and tyrosinase related protein-2 expression. Therefore, these results indicate that PCP may have potential inhibitory activity against melanin synthesis and may be a natural ingredient useful for the development of whitening materials in cosmetics and functional foods.


Perilla frutescens Britton var. acuta Kudo;tyrosinase;tyrosinase related protein-1;tyrosinase related protein-2;microphthalmia-associated transcription factor

SPGHB5_2019_v51n1_58_f0001.png 이미지

Fig. 1. Tyrosinase inhibition activity of crude polysaccharide fraction separated from Perilla frutescens Britton var. acuta Kudo (PCP).

SPGHB5_2019_v51n1_58_f0002.png 이미지

Fig. 2. Cell viability of IBMX and crude polysaccharide fraction separated from Perilla frutescens Britton var. acuta Kudo (PCP) in B16F10 melanoma cells.

SPGHB5_2019_v51n1_58_f0003.png 이미지

Fig. 3. The difference of melanin octents in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells treated with crude polysaccharide fraction separated from Perilla frutescens Britton var. acuta Kudo (PCP).

SPGHB5_2019_v51n1_58_f0004.png 이미지

Fig. 4. Effect of crude polysaccharide fraction separated from Perilla frutescens Britton var. acuta Kudo (PCP) on cellular melanin contents and tyrosinase activity in B16F10 cells.

SPGHB5_2019_v51n1_58_f0005.png 이미지

Fig. 5. Inhibitory effect of fractions from crude polysaccharide fraction separated from Perilla frutescens Britton var. acuta Kudo (PCP) on TRP-1, TRP-2, MITF, Tyrosine.


  1. Bertolotto C, Abbe P, Hemeasath TJ, Bille K, Fisher DE, Ortonne JP Ballotti R. Microphthalmia gene product an a signal transducer in cAMP-induced differentiation of melanocytes. J. Cell Biol. 142: 827-835 (1998)
  2. Busca R, Ballotti R. Cyclic AMP a key messenger in the regulation of skin pigmentation. Pigm. Cell Res. 13: 60-69 (2013)
  3. Byun EH. Immunomodulatory activities of crude polysaccharide fraction separated from Perilla frutecens Britton var. acruta Kudo. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 49: 559-566 (2017)
  4. Cho EJ, Kim YE, Byun EH. Immunomodulatory activities of polysaccharides extracted from Cudrania tricuspidata fruits in macrophage. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 50: 511-516 (2018)
  5. Cho EJ, Yokozawa T, Rhyu DY, Kim SC, Shibahara N, Park JC. Study on the inhibitory effects of Korean medicinal plants and their main compounds on the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. Phytomedicine 10: 544-551 (2003)
  6. Choi WS, Kwon HS, Lim HW, No RW and Lee HY. Whitening effects of Lactobacillus rahamnosus associated with its antioxidative activities. Korean J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 41: 183-189 (2013)
  7. Choung MG, Hwang YS, Kim GP, Ahn KG, Shim HS, Hong SB, Choi JH, Yu CY, Chong IM, Kim SH, Lim JD. Antimelanogenic effect and whitening of anthocyanin rich fraction from seeds of Liriope platyphylla. Korean J. Medicinal Crop Sci. 21: 361-371 (2013)
  8. Flurkey WH. Identification of tyrosinase in mushrooms by isoelectric focusing. J. Food Sci. 56: 93-95 (1991)
  9. Gross J, Lapiere CM. Collagenolytic activity in amphibian tissue: a tissu culture assay. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 54: 1197-1204 (1962)
  10. Hearing VJ, K Tukamoto. Enzymatic control of pigmentation in mammals. FASEB J. 5: 2902-2909 (1991)
  11. Jeddou KB, Chaari F, Maktouf S, Nouri-Ellouz O, Helbert CB, Ghorbel RE. Structural, functional, and antioxidant properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from potatoes peels. Food Chem. 205. 97-105 (2016)
  12. Jimnez-Cervantes C, Martnez-Esparza M, Prez C, Daum N, Solano F, Garca-Borrn JC. Inhibition of melanogenesis in response to oxidative stress: Transient downregulation of melanocyte differentiation markers and possible involvement of micro phthalmia trascription factor. J. Cell Sci. 114: 2335-2344 (2001)
  13. Kim DH, An BJ, Kim S, Park TS, Park GH. Son JH. Antimelanogenic effect of Ligularia fischeri, Solidago virga-aurea, Aruncus dioicus extracts from Ullung Island in murine melanoma cells. J. Life Sci. 21: 279-28 (2011a)
  14. Kim DH, Kim YC, Choi UK. Optimization of antibacterial activity of Perilla frutescens var. acuta leaf against staphylococcus using evolutionary operation factorial design technique. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12: 2395-2407 (2011b)
  15. Kim DM, Kim KH, Sung NY, Jung PM, Kim JS, Kim JK, Kim JH, Choi JI, Song BS, Lee JW, Kim JK, Yook HS. Effect of gamma irradiation on the extraction yield and whitening activity of polysaccharides from Undaria pinnatifida sporopyll. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 40: 712-716 (2011c)
  16. Lin JH, Chiang HM, Lin YC, Wen KC. Natural products with skinwhitening effects. J. Food Drug Anal. 16: 1-10 (2008)
  17. Park DY, Lee KY. Evaluation of the cosmeceutical activity of ethanol extracts from Perilla frutescens var. acuta. J. Korea Acad. Industr. 18: 513-517 (2017)
  18. Park JG, Karmer BS, Steinberg SM, Carmichael J. Collins JM, Minna JD, Gazdar AF. Chemosensitivity testing of human colorectal carcinoma cell lines using a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay. Cancer Res. 47: 5875-5879 (1987)
  19. Saha B, Singh SK, Sarkar C, Bera R, Ratha J, Tobin DJ, Bhadra R. Activation of the MITF promotoer by lipid-stimulated activation of p38-stress signalling to CREB. Pigm. Cell Res. 29: 595-605 (2006)
  20. Schepetkin IA, Quinn MT. Botanical polysaccharides: macrophage immunomodulation and therapeutic potential. Int. Immunopharmacol 6: 317-333 (2006)
  21. Swan GA. Structure, chemistry, and biosynthesis of the melanins. Fort. Chem. Org. Nat. 31: 521-582 (1974)
  22. Wang X, Wang J, Zhang J, Zhao B, Yao J, Wang Y. Structureantioxidant relationships of sulfated galactomannan from guar gum. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 46: 59-66 (2010)
  23. Ye Y, Chu JH, Wang H, Xu H, Chou GX, Leung AK. Involvement of p38 MAPK signaling pathway in the anti-melanogenic effect of San-bai-tang, a Chinese herbal formula, in B16 cells. J. Ethnopharmacol. 132: 533-535 (2010)
  24. Yoon HS, Koh WB, Oh YS, Kim IJ. The anti-melanogenic effects of Petalonia binghamia extracts in ${\alpha}$ melanocyte stimulating hormone-induced B16/F10 murine melanoma cells. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Bi. 52: 564-567 (2009)