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Improvement of Certification Criteria based on Analysis of On-site Investigation of Good Agricultural Practices(GAP) for Ginseng

인삼 GAP 인증기준의 현장실천평가결과 분석에 따른 인증기준 개선방안

  • Yoon, Deok-Hoon (Research Institute of International Agricultural Technology and Information, Hankyong National University) ;
  • Nam, Ki-Woong (Department of Horticultural Life Science, Hankyong National University) ;
  • Oh, Soh-Young (Research Institute of International Agricultural Technology and Information, Hankyong National University) ;
  • Kim, Ga-Bin (Department of Horticultural Life Science, Hankyong National University)
  • 윤덕훈 (국립한경대학교 국제농업기술정보연구소) ;
  • 남기웅 (국립한경대학교 원예생명과학과) ;
  • 오소영 (국립한경대학교 국제농업기술정보연구소) ;
  • 김가빈 (국립한경대학교 원예생명과학과)
  • Received : 2018.11.02
  • Accepted : 2019.01.21
  • Published : 2019.02.28

Abstract

Ginseng has a unique production system that is different from those used for other crops. It is subject to the Ginseng Industry Act., requires a long-term cultivation period of 4-6 years, involves complicated cultivation characteristics whereby ginseng is not produced in a single location, and many ginseng farmers engage in mixed-farming. Therefore, to bring the production of Ginseng in line with GAP standards, it is necessary to better understand the on-site practices of Ginseng farmers according to established control points, and to provide a proper action plan for improving efficiency. Among ginseng farmers in Korea who applied for GAP certification, 77.6% obtained it, which is lower than the 94.1% of farmers who obtained certification for other products. 13.7% of the applicants were judged to be unsuitable during document review due to their use of unregistered pesticides and soil heavy metals. Another 8.7% of applicants failed to obtain certification due to inadequate management results. This is a considerably higher rate of failure than the 5.3% incompatibility of document inspection and 0.6% incompatibility of on-site inspection, which suggests that it is relatively more difficult to obtain GAP certification for ginseng farming than for other crops. Ginseng farmers were given an average of 2.65 points out of 10 essential control points and a total 72 control points, which was slightly lower than the 2.81 points obtained for other crops. In particular, ginseng farmers were given an average of 1.96 points in the evaluation of compliance with the safe use standards for pesticides, which was much lower than the average of 2.95 points for other crops. Therefore, it is necessary to train ginseng farmers to comply with the safe use of pesticides. In the other essential control points, the ginseng farmers were rated at an average of 2.33 points, lower than the 2.58 points given for other crops. Several other areas of compliance in which the ginseng farmers also rated low in comparison to other crops were found. These inclued record keeping over 1 year, record of pesticide use, pesticide storages, posts harvest storage management, hand washing before and after work, hygiene related to work clothing, training of workers safety and hygiene, and written plan of hazard management. Also, among the total 72 control points, there are 12 control points (10 required, 2 recommended) that do not apply to ginseng. Therefore, it is considered inappropriate to conduct an effective evaluation of the ginseng production process based on the existing certification standards. In conclusion, differentiated certification standards are needed to expand GAP certification for ginseng farmers, and it is also necessary to develop programs that can be implemented in a more systematic and field-oriented manner to provide the farmers with proper GAP management education.

인삼은 인삼산업법이라는 독립된 법률의 적용을 받으며 4~6년간의 장기 재배기간과 이동경작이라는 독특한 재배특성이 있고 타 작물도 생산하는 복합영농의 형태를 가지고 있는 농가가 많은 점 등 일반 작물과는 생산과정과 관리방법이 다르다. 따라서 GAP기준에 적합한 인삼 생산을 위해서는 GAP인증기준 항목별로 인삼농가의 실천수준을 파악하여 미흡한 점에 대해서 실천방안을 제시할 필요가 있다. 인삼에 대하여 GAP인증을 신청한 농가의 인증 취득률은 77.6%으로 기타 농산물의 94.1% 보다 낮았다. 미등록농약의 사용이나 토양 중금속 기준치 초과 등 서류심사 단계에서 13.7%가 부적합으로 판정되었으며, 현장심사결과 관리미흡으로 인증을 취득하지 못한 경우는 8.7% 이었다. 이는 기타 농산물에서 서류심사 부적합율 5.3%와 현장심사 부적합율 0.6%에 비하여 상당히 높은 것으로 인삼에 있어서 부적합율이 높은 원인을 분석하여 부적합율을 낮추는 방안 모색이 필요하다. 전체 72개 평가항목 중 10가지 주요 필수항목인 필수+ 기준에 대해 인삼은 2.65점으로 평가되어 기타 농산물의 2.81점 보다 다소 낮게 평가되었다. 특히 인삼농가에서는 토양 및 작물 병해충관리용 농약의 안전사용기준 준수가 각각 2.01점과 1.92점으로 평가받아 기타 농산물의 2.96점과 2.94점에 비하여 상대적으로 낮아 인삼농가의 농약사용에 좀 더 많은 주의가 필요하다. 일반 필수기준인 필수기준에서도 인삼은 2.33점으로 기타 농산물의 2.58점 보다 낮게 평가되었다. 인삼이 기타 농산물에 비하여 상대적으로 낮게 평가된 항목은 영농기록의 1년 이상 보관 항목(1.98점), 품질보증 종자 사용 항목(1.31점), 토양 및 작물 병해충 관리용 농약 사용 기록 항목(1.38점과 177점), 농약보관장소 표시물(1.69점), 수확후저장장소 관리 항목(1.67점), 작업 전 후 손 세척 항목(1.00점), 작업자 위생복장 착용(1.50점) 작업자 안전위생교육 항목(0.82점), 위해요소관리계획서(1.96점) 등으로 이 항목들은 인삼농가들이 앞으로 개선을 해야 할 필요가 있다. 또한 전체 72개 항목 중 인삼에 적용되지 않는 항목이 12개 항목(필수 10개, 권장 2개)에 달한다. 따라서 기존의 인증기준으로는 인삼 생산과정에 대해 실효성 있는 평가를 하기에는 부적절한 것으로 판단된다. 결론적으로 인삼에 대한 GAP인증의 확대를 위해서는 차별화된 인증기준이 필요하며, 인삼 농가에 대한 GAP관리교육이 보다 체계적이고 현장중심으로 수행될 수 있는 프로그램의 개발이 필요하다.

Keywords

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 농촌진흥청

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