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The impact of Computer Game Addiction on Communication capabilities

  • Kim, Jung ae (Chodang University, Department of Medical Management) ;
  • Lee, Byunghyun (Chodang University, Department of Medical Management)
  • Received : 2019.01.18
  • Accepted : 2019.01.31
  • Published : 2019.02.28

Abstract

This study was a cross-sectional descriptive research that investigate the level of addiction and analyzed the impact of computer game addiction from 20 to 30 years old on communication capabilities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of game addiction according to general characteristics and to confirm the effect of computer game addiction on communication ability. There were a total of 220 participants in the study. This survey for this study was a self-reporting questionnaire, research tools for this study were developed by Lee (2000) using game addiction and Communication ability developed by Frits et al., (1999). Data analysis was analyzed with frequency analysis, t-test, ANOVA, and Regression using SPSS 18.0. As a result of analysis, the difference between game addiction and communication ability by gender was appeared to be different under statistical significance levels: game addiction (t=-.9.2, p<0.01), subcomponents of communication ability, concentration (t=7.20, p<0.01), understanding (t=6.13, p<0.01), response (t=6.22, p<0.01), memory (t=2.88, p<0.05). The highest level of game addiction was appeared between 28 and 30 years old under statistical significance (p<0.01). Finally computer game addiction affects understanding, a subcomponent of communication capabilities.

1. Introduction

Currently, we live in the information age, and the Internet is a very important medium among the necessary information collection channels. In the information age, computer information is collected through computers [1-2]. Therefore, the computer literacy rate is higher than that of any other ability. This trend has steadily increased the computer ownership rate of all households. Especially, 99.3% of the students are internet users, and 86.0% of users use Internet-based games for leisure activities [3]. Computer games can be divided into online games and offline games. And computer game classification methods are diverse, but most commonly divided into genres. Genre refers to the sharing of subjects and stories in a manner that draws them [4-5]. In 2002, HK Lim (2002) classified the genre of computer games as follows. First, arcade games can be played with simple keystrokes, and a method of attacking enemies using a part of the body, a predetermined object or a weapon is universally used, and it is necessary to have quickness and quick adaptability rather than intellectual aspect. For example, shooting games, puzzle games, soccer, baseball, etc., are computerized sports games. The second is the Adventure game, in which the player completes the story set in the program by typing words directly or by giving orders to the main character. In a fantastic and mysterious world, players will use their imagination and logic to adventure. Third, Role playing game means 'to play a role'. It is a game in which a player achieves a certain purpose by selecting and performing a role that he / she will assume before playing the game. Fourth, as a simulation game, the term 'simulation of a game' means 'simulation'. By creating conditions that resemble reality and experimenting with things that can happen easily, it is creating a virtual world that resembles reality, a virtual reality that can be called a reality model. This game is a game that sets the world of the game similar to reality and in which the player achieves a certain purpose. The positive side is making the computer friendly, fun, and relieving stress [6-8] The results of the study showed that the learners' interest and confidence were high when they were learning using games, and that the learning methods using computer games improved learner's reading ability compared with the general learning methods based on textbooks and audio and video [9-12]. In addition, as the types and genres of computer games have been diversified, factors that can affect students' spatial skills, psychological state, and cognitive development have been increasing in graphic and sound of computer games, and it has been reported that the judgment becomes faster and the imagination becomes richer [13]. In addition, since the computer game facilitates the coordination movement of the eyes and hands [14-15], children who have no structural capacity in general games acquire a certain pattern by repeating random games. It is also useful in the education of children with disabilities [16-17]. However, these sensory pleasures and fulfilling computer games can also add to the addiction of the game, which is a powerful negative result [18-20] The screen and color composition of the computer game, the sound effect, etc. are stimulating and violent, and it is said that boys who have a tendency to pursue stimulation and aggressive tendency are easily distracted [21-23]. The phenomenon of addiction that is exacerbated by the effects of superior surrogacy provided by computer games threatens not only the psychological well-being of the individual but also the relationship with other important people and when teenagers are addicted to games, their conversations with their parents are diminished [24-25]. Furthermore, students lose interest in school life and are neglected in their studies [21][25]. Most of the games these days are characterized by violence. Therefore, the violence of the game is easily transferred to the children, and since the game is a window that interacts with other gamers, it reflects the self-consciousness of the youth and can learn the violence that is distorted without knowing it. Impulsive and aggressive games are sometimes seen as violence for some young people who want to be independent of the protection of their parents and lack real dialogue with their parents [26-27]. In addition, computer games are often used alone to avoid interpersonal relationships, which may indicate interpersonal anxiety [21][23], increase social isolation, raise personal inclination and deteriorating sociality. In addition, according to recent researches, it is possible to make a cynical attitude toward reality by making experience of living the world with a completely different appearance and character in virtual space and time completely separated from the real world and making it difficult to distinguish between reality and virtual. Other complaints are physical symptoms due to the addiction of the game, which are complaints of pain in the wrist, cervical, and elbow joints and complain of mental disorders such as anxiety, depression, and anxiety in relationships with others [28].

The characteristics of game addiction show strong attachment and dependency. The game occupies a very important position in an individual's life, and game addicts behave like obsessive obsessions and dependencies in order to continue the game behavior as well as the behavioral characteristics of general behavior addiction. In more severe cases, resistance and loss of control may occur. Tolerance refers to the ability to use more time in the game to get the same level of satisfaction, or to feel satisfied only through more aggressive or aggressive games. Addicted computer gamers may withdraw when they stop playing games, but withdrawal is an indication of anxiety, depression, insomnia, etc. if they are not used for a certain period of time. In addition, there may be various problems when confusing with the virtual world of the computer is confused with reality. Especially, it is difficult to communicate 'non-verbal communication' such as expressions and behaviors such as communication through direct interpersonal relationship .Empathy in a person's life can have a profound impact on the vitality of life. Communication, which is an important part of interpersonal relationships, is also important for the mental health of modern people. Communication is recognized as a field of social science and communication affects the messages generated in interpersonal relationships and the processes and actions in which they are exchanged. Norton, R. W. defined the communication as: Communication is the most universal and fundamental of human relationships and is defined as the process of forming and maintaining the relationships between family members [29-30]. Sullivan emphasizes that a person was born with interpersonal skills from birth. It is emphasized that infants act as an important factor in the process of self-formation through the formation of relationships with meaningful objects, and that the source of all the anxiety of humans comes from interpersonal relationships. [31]. Improving communication skills is very important to improve interpersonal skills [18][19][23]. This communication can be said to exist when two people interact with each other in a specific way, and it is important to share basic desires in human life [31]. Communication skills are closely related to human empathy for social life. [32] According to Koo's study [33], empathy education in university lecture for college students emphasizes positive social interaction by forming social support network well. In other words, empathy was emphasized as having a positive role in interpersonal relationship. Thus, communication skills are closely related to empathy and positive interpersonal relationships. Nonetheless, the research that has been done so far shows that games that use computers are more concerned about physical, emotional, and social functioning rather than many positive effects. In other words, the majority of researchers are concerned about the phenomenon of interpersonal relations and communication in the virtual world of computer games. If so, it is meaningful to investigate the problem in which field of communication ability. Through this study, it can be obtained basic data for the alternative of computer game addiction by analyzing the relationship between computer game addiction level and communication ability and its effect. The purpose of the study is as follows.

First, investigate the level of computer game addiction according to general characteristics.

Second, investigate the relationship between computer game addiction and communication ability. Third, analyze factors affecting communication ability of computer game addiction.

2. Research Method

2.1. Research design

The research design was to investigate whether the level of game addiction level affects communication ability (figure 1).

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Figure 1. Research design

2.2 Participants

The total number of participants in this study was 220, who responded to online surveys. The questionnaire included an understanding of the purpose of the study and a voluntary response to the questionnaire. Participants were between the ages 20 and 40 and consisted of people who were familiar with the researchers. The survey period was from December 1 to 15, 2018.

2.3 Research tools

2.3.1 Game addiction

The game addiction tool was the internet addiction test (the addiction test made by the center for on-line addiction), which was modified according to the game situation by Lee [34]. The original test consisted of 20 questions and 5 pints scale. In this study, it was modified to ‘Yes’ and, ‘No’, and it was judged that the higher score of game addiction test, the higher the degree of game addiction. The total scores ranged from 0 to 20, with the top 33% being 10-20 points for computer game addicts, the middle 33% for 6-9 computer game addicts, and the bottom 33% classified as 0-5 points in the game.

2.3.2 Communication ability

The communication ability tool for this study was developed by Frits et al., [35] and was a 5-point scale. The higher the score, the higher the communication ability, the 15-20 score was in the range of 20-25, the ‘excellent communication’, it was judged as ‘communication problem’ in the range of 15-15 score. The reliability of original tool was Cronbach alpha=0.91, and which was 0.95 in this study.

Table 1. Communication Tool

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3. Result

3.1 General characteristics

A frequency analysis was performed to identify the general characteristics of participants (Table 2). The study involved a total 220 participants, aged 20 to 30. The age of participants was the highest among the 22-24 year olds as 60(27.3%), 25-27 were 50 (22.7%), above 30 years olds were 40 (18.1%), 20-21 were 30 (13.6%), and 28-29 were 10 (4.5%). The participants were 180 (81.8%) women and 40 (18.2%) were men. Religion was the highest with 160 people (72.7%) without religion, and 20 (9.1%) people with Protestant, Catholic and Buddhist. Among the participants, the youngest siblings were the most, 220 (81.8%) participants were the youngest, and 20 (9.1%) were the first and 20 (9.1%) were the middle. At present, 90 (40.9%) have the most living on one’s own, 70 (31.8%) were commute school, 40 (18.2%) were lodging people, and 20 (9.1%) were living on dormitories. As a result of a survey on drinking, it was found that 80 (36.4%) people were the most drinkers when they were asked to drink, 50 (22.7%) were drinking once a month, and 40 (18.2%) drinking twice a week and 10 (4.5%) drinking daily. According to a survey on tobacco, the highest number of people who did not smoke 200 (90.9%), 10 (4.5%) who smoked and 10 (4.5%) who quit smoking. As a result of research on the areas of interest, the respondents answered that they were interested in shopping with 110 (50.5%). 20 (9.1%) people were interested in art, reading a book, getting in touch with people, part-time work, and others. A survey of having opposite gender friend, at present, 140 (63.6%) have no opposite friend, and 80 (36.4%) have opposite gender friend.

Table 2. General characteristics

 

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3.2 Correlation between game addiction and communication ability level

The relationship between game addiction and communication ability was analyzed (Table 3). As a result of analysis, it was appeared that response, a sub-factor of communication, was correlated with game addiction under statistical significance level (r=-.030, p<0.05).

Table 3. Correlation between Game addiction and Communication ability level

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3.3 Game addiction and communication ability level difference according to gender

A t-test was correlated to identify differences in game addiction and communication ability according to gender (Table 4). The results of this research were as follow: gender was statistically significant at game addiction (t=-9.2, p<0.01), concentration (t=7.20, p<0.01), understanding (t=6.13, p<0.01), response (t=6.22, p<0.01), and memory (t=2.88, p<0.05).

Table 4. Game addiction and communication ability level differences according to gender

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3.4 Game addiction differences according to age

ANOVA analysis was conducted to identify differences in game addiction according to age (Table 5). As a result of analysis, age was found to affect game addiction at statistical significance level (p<0.01). 28-30 years old were the most addicted to the game, followed by 25-27, 22-24, and 31 years old (p<0.01)

Table 5. Game addiction differences according to age

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3.5 The effect of game addiction to communication ability level.

Regression analysis was conducted to confirm the effect of game addiction on communication ability (Table 6). The result of analysis showed that game addiction affected only understanding which was sub-factor of communication (t=-2.413, p<0.05).

Table 6. The effect of game addiction to communication ability level

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4. Conclusion and Discussion

In recent times, the use of computers has become absolutely necessary in real life. As the computer became more and more natural, the rate of natural contact with computer games increase, and the enjoyment of computer games naturally increased the number of people with addiction symptoms [3-4]. Computer addiction is a high-risk group, especially in the 20-30 age groups. So far, it has been studied that computer games have various advantages and disadvantages [10][14]. Recent studies have shown that computer game addiction was a major concern for people living in their own world. In other words, there was a huge concern about the problem of not communicating with people.

This study to investigate the level of addiction and analyzed the impact of computer game addiction from 20 to 30 years old on communication capabilities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of game addiction according to general characteristics and to confirm the effect of computer game addiction on communication ability. There were a total of 220 participants in the study. As a result of analysis, the difference between game addiction and communication ability by gender was appeared to be different under statistical significance levels: game addiction (t=-.9.2, p<0.01), subcomponents of communication ability, concentration (t=7.20, p<0.01), understanding (t=6.13, p<0.01), response (t=6.22, p<0.01), memory (t=2.88, p<0.05). The highest level of game addiction was appeared between 28 and 30 years old under statistical significance (p<0.01). Finally computer game addiction affects understanding, a subcomponent of communication capabilities.

As a result of this study, computer game addiction was correlated with communication capability, however communication capability were not as severe as in previous studies. According to Fritz S et al., [35] the communication ability was divided into five areas (concentration, understanding, analysis, response, memory), and this study appeared that it affected only the area of understanding, the sub-component of communication. This study suggested that it was meaningful that computer game addiction has a specific effect on the area of communication. Therefore, it is necessary to study further deeply what kind of game influence understanding.

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