DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Risk factors limiting first service conception rate in dairy cows and their economic impact

  • Kim, Ill Hwa (Veterinary Medical Center and College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Jeong, Jae Kwan (Veterinary Medical Center and College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University)
  • Received : 2018.04.17
  • Accepted : 2018.09.03
  • Published : 2019.04.01

Abstract

Objective: We determined the risk factors limiting first service conception (FSC) rate in dairy cows and their economic impact. Methods: Data were collected from 790 lactations regarding cow parity, peri- and postpartum disorders, body condition score (BCS), reproductive performance, and expenses associated with reproductive management (treatment, culling, and others). Initially, we identified the risk factors limiting FSC rate in dairy cows. Various biological and environmental factors, such as herd, cow parity, BCS at 1 month postpartum and first artificial insemination (AI), resumption of cyclicity within 1 month of calving, year, AI season, insemination at detected estrus or timed AI, peri- and postpartum disorders, and calving to first AI interval, were evaluated. Next, we evaluated the economic impact of the success or failure of FSC by comparing the expense associated with reproductive management until conception between cows that did or did not conceive at their first service. Results: Cows with BCS <3.0 had a lower probability of conceiving at first insemination (odds ratio [OR] = 0.64, p<0.05) than cows with $BCS{\geq}3.0$. Cows inseminated during summer were less likely to conceive (OR = 0.44, p<0.001) than cows inseminated during spring. Cows with peri- or postpartum disorders were less likely to conceive (OR = 0.55, p<0.001) than cows without disorders. Survival curves generated using MedCalc showed an 81 day extension in the mean interval between calving and conception in cows that failed to conceive over those that did conceive at first insemination. Cows failing conceive required additional expenditure on reproductive treatment ($55.40) and other management ($567.00) than cows that conceived at first insemination. Conclusion: Lower BCS, hot weather at first insemination, and peri- and postpartum disorders are risk factors limiting FSC, which result in an economic loss of $622.40 per dairy cow.

Keywords

Dairy Cow;First Service;Conception;Risk Factor;Economic Impact

Acknowledgement

Grant : Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science & Technology Development

Supported by : Rural Development Administration

References

  1. Drackley JK, Cardoso FC. Prepartum and postpartum nutritional management to optimize fertility in high-yielding dairy cows in confined TMR systems. Animal 2014;8(Suppl 1):5-14. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731114000731
  2. Inchaisri C, Hogeveen H, Vos PLAM, van der Weijden GC, Jorritsma R. Effect of milk yield characteristics, breed, and parity on success of the first insemination in Dutch dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 2010;93:5179-87. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3234
  3. Siddiqui MAR, Das ZC, Bhattacharjee J, et al. Factors affecting the first conception rate of cows in smallholder dairy farms in Bangladesh. Reprod Domest Anim 2013;48:500-5. https://doi.org/10.1111/rda.12114
  4. Tillard E, Humblot P, Faye B, et al. Postcalving factors affecting conception risk in Holstein dairy cows in tropical and subtropical conditions. Theriogenology 2008;69:443-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2007.10.014
  5. Chang YM, Andersen-Ranberg IM, Heringstad B, Gianola D, Klemetsdal G. Bivariate analysis of number of services to conception and days open in Norwegian Red using a censored threshold-linear model. J Dairy Sci 2006;89:772-8. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72138-5
  6. Gonzalez-Recio O, Perez-Cabal MA, Alenda R. Economic value of female fertility and its relationship with profit in Spanish dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 2004;87:3053-61. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73438-4
  7. Grimard B, Freret S, Chevallier A, et al. Genetic and environmental factors influencing first service conception rate and late embryonic/foetal mortality in low fertility dairy herds. Anim Reprod Sci 2006;91:31-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2005.03.003
  8. Inchaisri C, Chanpongsang S, Noordhuizen J, Hogeveen H. The association of ruminal pH and some metabolic parameters with conception rate at first artificial insemination in Thai dairy cows. Trop Anim Health Prod 2013;45:1183-90. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-012-0344-5
  9. Fourichon C, Seegers H, Malher X. Effect of disease on reproduction in the dairy cow: a meta-analysis. Theriogenology 2000;53:1729-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0093-691X(00)00311-3
  10. Quintela LA, Pena AI, Taboada MJ, et al. Risk factors for low pregnancy rate in dairy cattle: A retrospective study in the north west of Spain. Arch Zootec 2004;53:69-76.
  11. ICAR (International Committee for Animal Recording). Yearly milk enquiry online database; 2018 [cited 2018 June 28]. Available from: http://www.icar.org/survey/pages/tables.php.
  12. Loeffler SH, de Vries MJ, Schukken YH. The effects of time of disease occurrence, milk yield, and body condition on fertility of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 1999;82:2589-604. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75514-1
  13. Lombard JE, Garry FB, Tomlinson SM, Garber LP. Impacts of dystocia on health and survival of dairy calves. J Dairy Sci 2007;90:1751-60. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-295
  14. Sheldon IM, Lewis GS, LeBlanc S, Gilbert RO. Defining postpartum uterine disease in cattle. Theriogenology 2006;65:1516-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2005.08.021
  15. Edmonson AJ, Lean IJ, Weaver LD, Farver T, Webster G. A body condition scoring chart for Holstein dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 1989;72:68-78. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(89)79081-0
  16. Pursley JR, Mee MO, Wiltbank MC. Synchronization of ovulation in dairy cows using $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ and GnRH. Theriogenology 1995;44:915-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/0093-691X(95)00279-H
  17. Tenhagen BA, Drillich M, Surholt R, Heuwieser W. Comparison of timed AI after synchronized ovulation to AI at estrus: reproductive and economic considerations. J Dairy Sci 2004;87:85-94. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73145-8
  18. Patton J, Kenny DA, McNamera S, et al. Relationships among milk production, energy balance, plasma analytes, and reproduction in Holstein-Friesian cows. J Dairy Sci 2007;90:649-58. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(07)71547-3
  19. Haque MN, Gofur MR, Asaduzzaman KM, Bhuiyan MMU. Factors limiting the pregnancy rates in artificially inseminated cows in Bangladesh. Int J Dairy Sci 2015;10:278-87. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijds.2015.278.287
  20. Donovan GA, Benett FL, Springer FS. Factors associated with first service conception in artificially inseminated nulliparous Holstein heifers. Theriogenology 2003;60:67-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0093-691X(02)01296-7
  21. Roth Z, Hansen PJ. Involvement of apoptosis in disruption of developmental competence of bovine oocytes by heat shock during maturation. Biol Reprod 2004;71:1898-906. https://doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.104.031690
  22. Schüller LK, Burfeind O, Heuwieser W. Impact of heat stress on conception rate of dairy cows in the moderate climate considering different temperature-humidity index thresholds, periods relative to breeding, and heat load indices. Theriogenology 2014;81:1050-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2014.01.029
  23. Liu WB, Peh HC, Wang CK, et al. Effect of seasonal changes on fertility parameters of Holstein dairy cows in subtropical climate of Taiwan. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2018;31:820-6. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.17.0301
  24. Morton JM, Tranter WP, Mayer DG, Jonsson NN. Effects of environmental heat on conception rates in lactating dairy cows: critical periods of exposure. J Dairy Sci 2007;90:2271-8. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-574
  25. Wolfenson D, Thatcher WW, Badinga L, et al. Effect of heat stress on follicular development during the estrous cycle in lactating dairy cattle. Biol Reprod 1995;52:1106-13. https://doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod52.5.1106
  26. Kim DU, Lee SC, Jeong JK, et al. Effects of dystocia on the postpartum complications, milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cows. J Vet Clin 2016;33:87-92. https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2016.04.33.2.87
  27. Chebel RC, Santos JEP, Reynolds JP, et al. Factors affecting conception rate after artificial insemination and pregnancy loss in lactating dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci 2004;84:239-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2003.12.012
  28. Dalton JC, Manzo R, Ahmadzadeh A, et al. Conception rates following detection of estrus and timed AI in dairy cows synchronized using GnRH and $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$. J Dairy Sci 2005;88:4313-6. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)73117-9
  29. Jobst SM, Nebel RL, McGillard ML, Pelzer KD. Evaluation of reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows with prostaglandin $F_{2{\alpha}}$, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and timed artificial insemination. J Dairy Sci 2000;83:2366-72. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)75125-3
  30. Boichard D. Estimation of the economic value of conception rate in dairy cattle. Livest Prod Sci 1990;24:187-204. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-6226(90)90001-M