Risk factors limiting first service conception rate in dairy cows and their economic impact

  • Kim, Ill Hwa (Veterinary Medical Center and College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Jeong, Jae Kwan (Veterinary Medical Center and College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University)
  • Received : 2018.04.17
  • Accepted : 2018.09.03
  • Published : 2019.04.01


Objective: We determined the risk factors limiting first service conception (FSC) rate in dairy cows and their economic impact. Methods: Data were collected from 790 lactations regarding cow parity, peri- and postpartum disorders, body condition score (BCS), reproductive performance, and expenses associated with reproductive management (treatment, culling, and others). Initially, we identified the risk factors limiting FSC rate in dairy cows. Various biological and environmental factors, such as herd, cow parity, BCS at 1 month postpartum and first artificial insemination (AI), resumption of cyclicity within 1 month of calving, year, AI season, insemination at detected estrus or timed AI, peri- and postpartum disorders, and calving to first AI interval, were evaluated. Next, we evaluated the economic impact of the success or failure of FSC by comparing the expense associated with reproductive management until conception between cows that did or did not conceive at their first service. Results: Cows with BCS <3.0 had a lower probability of conceiving at first insemination (odds ratio [OR] = 0.64, p<0.05) than cows with $BCS{\geq}3.0$. Cows inseminated during summer were less likely to conceive (OR = 0.44, p<0.001) than cows inseminated during spring. Cows with peri- or postpartum disorders were less likely to conceive (OR = 0.55, p<0.001) than cows without disorders. Survival curves generated using MedCalc showed an 81 day extension in the mean interval between calving and conception in cows that failed to conceive over those that did conceive at first insemination. Cows failing conceive required additional expenditure on reproductive treatment ($55.40) and other management ($567.00) than cows that conceived at first insemination. Conclusion: Lower BCS, hot weather at first insemination, and peri- and postpartum disorders are risk factors limiting FSC, which result in an economic loss of $622.40 per dairy cow.


Dairy Cow;First Service;Conception;Risk Factor;Economic Impact


Grant : Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science & Technology Development

Supported by : Rural Development Administration


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