DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of dietary energy and crude protein levels on growth performance, blood profiles, and nutrient digestibility in weaning pigs

  • Fang, Lin Hu (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Jin, Ying Hai (Department of Animal Science, Yanbian University) ;
  • Do, Sung Ho (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Hong, Jin Su (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, Byung Ock (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Han, Tae Hee (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, Yoo Yong (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University)
  • Received : 2018.04.17
  • Accepted : 2018.08.08
  • Published : 2019.04.01

Abstract

Objective: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of reducing dietary metabolic energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) levels on growth performance, blood profiles, and nutrient digestibility in weaning pigs. Methods: A total of 240 crossbred pigs ($Duroc{\times}[Landrace{\times}Yorkshire]$) with an average body weight of $8.67{\pm}1.13kg$ were used for a 6-week feeding trial. Experimental pigs were allotted to a $2{\times}3$ factorial arrangement using a randomized complete block design. The first factor was two levels of dietary ME density (low ME level, 13.40 MJ/kg or high ME level, 13.82 MJ/kg) and the second factor was three dietary CP levels based on subdivision of early and late weaning phases (low CP level, 19.7%/16.9%; middle CP level, 21.7%/18.9%; or high CP level, 23.7%/20.9%). Results: Over the entire experimental period, there were no significant difference in body weight among groups, but a decrease in diet energy level was associated with an increase in average daily feed intake (p = 0.02) and decrease in gain-feed ratio (G:F) ratio (p<0.01). Decreased CP levels in the diet were associated with a linear increase in average daily gain (p<0.05) and quadratic increase in G:F ratio (p<0.05). In the early weaning period, blood urea nitrogen concentration tended to increase when ME in the diet decreased and decrease when CP level in the diet decreased (p = 0.09, p<0.01, respectively). Total protein concentration tended to increase when CP level was reduced (p = 0.08). In the late weaning period, blood urea nitrogen concentration decreased linearly as CP level decreased (p<0.01). The CP and crude fat digestibility decreased when ME was decreased by 0.42 MJ/kg (p = 0.05, p = 0.01, respectively). The CP digestibility increased linearly as CP level decreased (p = 0.01). Conclusion: A weaning pig diet containing high ME level (13.82 MJ/kg) and low CP level (19.7%/16.9%) can improve pig growth performance and nutrient digestibility.

Keywords

Energy;Crude Protein;Growth Performance;Blood Profiles;Nutrient Digestibility;Weaning Pigs

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Rural Development Administration

References

  1. Jongbloed AW, Lenis N. Alteration of nutrition as a means to reduce environmental pollution by pigs. Livest Prod Sci 1992;31:75. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-6226(92)90057-B
  2. Paik IK, Blair R, Jacob J. Strategies to reduce environmental pollution from animal manure: principles and nutritional management - a review -. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 1996;9:615-36. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1996.615
  3. Jeong TS, Heo PS, Lee GY, et al. The influence of phase feeding methods on growth performance, meat quality, and production cost in growing-finishing pigs. J Anim Sci Technol 2010;52:29-36. https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2010.52.1.029
  4. Pluske JR. Nutrition of the neonatal pig. In: Varley MA, editors. The neonatal pig: development and survival. Wallingford, UK: CAB International; 1995. 206 p.
  5. Gatnau R. Plasma protein in diets for weaning pigs. Int. Pig Topics 1999;14:7-9.
  6. Makkink CA. Of pigs, dietary proteins, and pancreatic proteases [dissertation]. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Agricultural University; 1993.
  7. McCracken BA, Gaskins HR, Ruwe-Kaiser PJ, Klasing KC, Jewell DE. Diet-dependent and diet-independent metabolic responses underlie growth stasis of pigs at weaning. J Nutr 1995;125:2838-45.
  8. Swine nutrition. 2th ed. In: Lewis AJ, Southern LL, editors. Boca Raton London New York Washington, DC: CRC Press; 2001.
  9. Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Swine, National Research Council. Nutrient requirements of swine. 10th ed. Washington, DC, USA: National Academy Press; 1998.
  10. Beaulieu AD, Levesque CL, Patience JF. The effects of dietary energy concentration and weaning site on weanling pig performance. J Anim Sci 2006;84:1159-68. https://doi.org/10.2527/2006.8451159x
  11. Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Swine, National Research Council. Nutrient requirements of swine. 11th ed. Washington, DC, USA: National Academy Press; 2012.
  12. Ribeiro AML, Farina G, Vieira MS, Perales VA, Kessler AM. Energy utilization of light and heavy weaned piglets subjected to different dietary energy levels. R Bras Zootec 2016;45:532-9. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1806-92902016000900005
  13. Lee JH, Kim HB, Yun W, et al. Effects of reducing dietary crude protein and metabolic energy in weaned piglets. S Afr J Anim Sci 2017;47:574-81. https://doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v47i4.16
  14. Bajao NC, Lara LJC. Oil and fat in broiler nutrition. Braz J Poult Sci 2005;7:3:129-41.
  15. Opapeju FO, Krause DO, Payne RL, Rademacher M, Nyachoti CM. Effect of dietary protein level on growth performance, indicators of enteric health, and gastrointestinal microbial ecology of weaned pigs induced with postweaning colibacillosis. J Anim Sci 2009;87:2635-43. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1310
  16. Opapeju FO, Roriguez-Lecompte JC, Rademacher M, Krause DO, Nyachoti CM. Low crude protein diets modulate intestinal responses in weaned pigs challenged with Escherichia coli K88. Can J Anim Sci 2015;95:71-8. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas-2014-071
  17. Wen XL, Wang L, Zheng CT, et al. Fecal scores and microbial metabolites in weaned piglets fed different protein sources and levels. Anim Nutr 2018;4:31-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2017.10.006
  18. Wu YP, Jiang ZY, Zheng CT, et al. Effects of protein sources and levels in antibiotic-free diets on diarrhea, intestinal morphology, and expression of tight junctions in weaned piglets. Anim Nutr 2015;1:170-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2015.08.013
  19. Wellock IJ, Fortomaris PD, Houdijk JGM, Kyriazakis I. Effects of dietary protein supply, weaning age and experimental enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection on newly weaned pigs: health. Animal 2008;2:834-42.
  20. Jensen MS, Jensen SK, Jakobsen K. Development of digestive enzymes in pigs with emphasis on lipolytic activity in the stomach and pancreas. J Anim Sci 1997;24:437-45.
  21. Hogberg A, Lindberg JE. Influence of cereal non-starch polysaccharides and enzyme supplementation on digestion site and gut environment in weaned piglets. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2004:116:113-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2004.03.010
  22. Kim BG, Lindemann, MD. A new spreadsheet method for the experimental animal allotment. J Amin Sci 2007;85(Suppl. 2):112.
  23. Kiarie E, Nyachoti CM, Slominski BA, Blank G. Growth performance, gastrointestinal microbial activity, and nutrient digestibility in early-weaned pigs fed diets containing flaxseed and carbohydrase enzyme. J Anim Sci 2007;85:2982-93. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2006-481
  24. Tokach MD, Pettigrew JE, Johnston LJ, et al. Effect of adding fat and (or) milk products to the weanling pig diet on performance in the nursery and subsequent grow-finish stages. J Anim Sci 1995;73:3358-68. https://doi.org/10.2527/1995.73113358x
  25. Hastad CW, Tokach MD, Nelssen JL, Goodband RD, Dritz SS. Evaluation of ground corn germ as an energy source in nursery diets. In: Kansas State Swine Day. Manhattan, KS, USA: Kansas State University; 2001. 45 p.
  26. Li DF, Nelssen JL, Reddy PG, et al. Measuring suitability of soybean meal products for early-weaned pigs with immunological criteria. J Anim Sci 1991;69:3299-307. https://doi.org/10.2527/1991.6983299x
  27. Li DF, Nelssen JL, Reddy PG, et al. Interrelationship between hypersensitivity to soybean proteins and growth performance in early weaned pigs. J Anim Sci 1991;69:4062-9. https://doi.org/10.2527/1991.69104062x
  28. Le Bellego L, Noblet J. Performance and utilization of dietary energy and amino acids in piglets fed low protein diets. Livest Prod Sci 2002;76:45-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(02)00008-8
  29. Hermes RG, Molist F, Ywazaki M, et al. Effect of dietary level of protein and fiber on the productive performance and health status of piglets. J Anim Sci 2009;87:3569-77. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1241
  30. Nyachoti CM, Omogbenigun FO, Rademacher M, Blank G. Performance responses and indicators of gastrointestinal health in early-weaned pigs fed low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets. J Anim Sci 2006;84:125-34. https://doi.org/10.2527/2006.841125x
  31. Eggum BO, Chwalibog A, Danielsen V. The influence of dietary concentration of amino acids on protein and energy utilization in growing rats and piglets. 3. Diets of high biological value but with different protein concentrations. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 1987;57:52-64. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.1987.tb00006.x
  32. Whang KY, Easter RA. Blood urea nitrogen as an index of feed efficiency and lean growth potential in growing-finishing swine. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2000;13:811-6. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2000.811
  33. Fuller MF, Weekes TEC, Cadenhead A, Bruce JB. The proteinsparing effect of carbohydrate. 2. The role of insulin. Br J Nutr 1977;38:489-96. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19770114
  34. Heo JM, Kim JC, Hansen F, et al. Effects of feeding low protein diets to piglets on plasma urea nitrogen, faecal ammonia nitrogen, the incidence of diarrhoea and performance after weaning. Arch Anim Nutr 2008;62:343-58. https://doi.org/10.1080/17450390802327811
  35. Matthews JO, Gentry LR, Chapa AM, et al. Change in plasma metabolites and hormones in pigs relative to time of feeding. J Anim Sci 1998;76(Suppl 1):168.
  36. Nam DS, Aherne FX. The effects of lysine:energy ratio on the performance of weanling pigs. J Anim Sci 1994;72:1247-56. https://doi.org/10.2527/1994.7251247x
  37. Lawrence BV, Adeola O, Cline TR. Nitrogen utilization and lean growth performance of 20 to 50 kilogram pigs fed diets balanced for lysine: energy ratio. J Anim Sci 1994;72:2887-95. https://doi.org/10.2527/1994.72112887x
  38. Smith JW, Tokach MD, Nelssen JL, Goodband RD. Effect of lysine: calorie ratio on growth performance of 10 to 25 kilogram pigs. J Anim Sci 1999;77:3000-6. https://doi.org/10.2527/1999.77113000x
  39. Whittemore CT, Fawcett RH. Theoretical aspects of a flexible model to stimulate protein and lipid growth in pigs. Anim Prod 1976; 22:87-96.
  40. van Lunen TA, Cole DJA. The effect of dietary energy concentration and lysine/digestible energy ratio on growth performance and nitrogen deposition of young hybrid pigs. Anim Sci 1998;67:117-29. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1357729800009851
  41. Jin CF, Kim JH, Han IK, Bea SH. Effects of supplemental synthetic amino acids to the low protein diets on the performance of growing pigs. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 1998;11:1-7. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1998.1