DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Potential to mitigate ammonia emission from slurry by increasing dietary fermentable fiber through inclusion of tropical byproducts in practical diets for growing pigs

  • Nguyen, Quan Hai (Laboratory for Animal Nutrition and Animal Product Quality, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University) ;
  • Le, Phung Dinh (Faculty of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry, Hue University) ;
  • Chim, Channy (Laboratory for Animal Nutrition and Animal Product Quality, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University) ;
  • Le, Ngoan Duc (Faculty of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry, Hue University) ;
  • Fievez, Veerle (Laboratory for Animal Nutrition and Animal Product Quality, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University)
  • Received : 2018.06.28
  • Accepted : 2018.09.05
  • Published : 2019.04.01

Abstract

Objective: Research was conducted to test the effect of including fiber-rich feedstuffs in practical pig diets on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and ammonia emissions from slurry. Methods: Three Vietnamese fiber sources were screened, namely cassava leaf meal (CL), cassava root residue (CR), and tofu by-product (TF). Accordingly, a control diet (Con) with 10% of dietary non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and three test diets including one of the three fiber-rich feedstuffs to reach 15% of NSP were formulated. All formulated diets had the same level of crude protein (CP), in vitro ileal protein digestible and metabolisable energy, whereas the in vitro hindgut volatile fatty acid (VFA) production of the test diets was 12% to 20% higher than the control diet. Forty growing barrows with initial body weight at $28.6{\pm}1.93kg$ ($mean{\pm}standard$ deviation) were allocated to the four treatments. When pigs reached about 50 kg of body weight, four pigs from each treatment were used for a nitrogen balance trial and ammonia emission assessment, the remaining six pigs continued the second period of the feeding trial. Results: The TF treatment increased fecal VFA by 33% as compared with the control treatment (p = 0.07), suggesting stimulation of the hindgut fermentation. However, urinary N was not significantly reduced or shifted to fecal N, nor was slurry pH decreased. Accordingly, ammonia emissions were not mitigated. CR and CL treatments failed to enhance in vivo hindgut fermentation, as assessed by fecal VFA and purine bases. On the contrary, the reduction of CP digestibility in the CL treatment enhanced ammonia emissions from slurry. Conclusion: Dietary inclusion of cassava and tofu byproducts through an increase of dietary NSP from 10% to 15% might stimulate fecal VFA excretion but this does not guarantee a reduction in ammonia emissions from slurry, while its interaction with protein digestibility even might enhance enhanced ammonia emission.

Keywords

Ammonia Emission;Pigs;Fiber-rich Feedstuffs;Manure

References

  1. Krupa SV. Effects of atmospheric ammonia ($NH_3$) on terrestrial vegetation: a review. Environ Pollut 2003;124:179-221. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(02)00434-7
  2. Backes A, Aulinger A, Bieser J, Matthias V, Quante M. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part I: Development of a dynamical ammonia emission inventory. Atmos Environ 2016;131:55-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.01.041
  3. Bindelle J, Leterme P, Buldgen A. Nutritional and environmental consequences of dietary fibre in pig nutrition: a review. Biotechnol Agron Soc Environ 2008;12:69-80.
  4. Canh TT, Verstegen MW, Aarnink AJ, Schrama JW. Influence of dietary factors on nitrogen partitioning and composition of urine and feces of fattening pigs. J Anim Sci 1997;75:700-6. https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.753700x
  5. Rojen BA, Larsen M, Kristensen NB. Effect of abomasal infusion of oligofructose on portal-drained visceral ammonia and urea-nitrogen fluxes in lactating Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 2012;95:7248-60. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-5558
  6. Mroz Z, Moeser AJ, Vreman K, et al. Effects of dietary carbohydrates and buffering capacity on nutrient digestibility and manure characteristics in finishing pigs. J Anim Sci 2000;78:3096-106. https://doi.org/10.2527/2000.78123096x
  7. Sommer SG, Husted S. The chemical buffer system in raw and digested animal slurry. J Agric Sci 1995;124:45-53. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600071239
  8. Wenk C. The role of dietary fibre in the digestive physiology of the pig. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2001;90:21-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(01)00194-8
  9. Dikeman CL, Fahey GC. Viscosity as related to dietary fiber: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2006;46:649-63. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408390500511862
  10. Tanghe S, De Boever J, Ampe B, et al. Nutrient composition, digestibility and energy value of distillers dried grains with solubles and condensed distillers solubles fed to growing pigs and evaluation of prediction methods. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2015;210:263-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2015.10.015
  11. Tran Thi Bich Ngoc, Ninh Thi Len, Brian Ogle, Jan Erik Lindberg. Influence of particle size and multi-enzyme supplementation of fibrous diets on total tract digestibility and performance of weaning (8-20 kg) and growing (20-40 kg) pigs. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2011;169:86-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.05.004
  12. Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Swine. National Research Council. Tenth revised edition. Wasington, DC, USA: National Academy Press; 1998. 20418.
  13. Canh TT, Aarnink AJA, Mroz Z, et al. Influence of electrolyte balance and acidifying calcium salts in the diet of growingfinishing pigs on urinary pH, slurry pH and ammonia volatilisation from slurry. Livest Prod Sci 1998;56:1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(98)00148-1
  14. AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. Association of Offical Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA: AOAC international; 1990.
  15. Prosky L, Asp NG, Schweizer TF, Devries JW, Furda I. Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fiber in foods and food products: interlaboratory study. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 1988;71:1017-23.
  16. Chow PS, Landhausser SM. A method for routine measurements of total sugar and starch content in woody plant tissues. Tree Physiol 2004;24:1129-36. https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/24.10.1129
  17. Chaney AL, Marbach EP. Modified reagents for determination of urea and ammonia. Clin Chem 1962;8:130-2.
  18. Wambacq W, Rybachuk G, Jeusette I, et al. Fermentable soluble fibres spare amino acids in healthy dogs fed a low-protein diet. BMC Vet Res 2016;12:130. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-016-0752-2
  19. Gadeyne F, De Ruyck K, Van Ranst G, et al. Effect of changes in lipid classes during wilting and ensiling of red clover using two silage additives on in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation. J Agric Sci 2016;154:553-66. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859615001203
  20. Martinez-Puig D, Perez JF, Castillo M, et al. Consumption of raw potato starch increases colon length and fecal excretion of purine bases in growing pigs. J Nutr 2003;133:134-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/133.1.134
  21. Vlaeminck B, Dufour C, Van Vuuren AM, et al. Use of odd and branched-chain fatty acids in rumen contents and milk as a potential microbial marker. J Dairy Sci 2005;88:1031-42. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72771-5
  22. Sappok MA, Pellikaan WF, Verstegen MW, et al. Large intestinal fermentation capacity of fattening pigs on organic farms as measured in vitro using contrasting substrates. J Sci Food Agric 2013;93:2402-9. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6075
  23. Vervaeke IJ, Dierick NA, Demeyer DI, Decuypere JA. Approach to the energetic importance of fibre digestion in pigs. II. An experimental approach to hindgut digestion. Anim Feed Sci Technol 1989;23:169-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(89)90096-5
  24. Martinez-Puig D, Perez JF, Castillo M, et al. Consumption of raw potato starch increases colon length and fecal excretion of purine bases in growing pigs. J Nutr 2003;133:134-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/133.1.134
  25. Hansen MJ, Chwalibog A, Tauson AH. Influence of different fibre sources in diets for growing pigs on chemical composition of faeces and slurry and ammonia emission from slurry. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2007;134:326-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.08.021
  26. Jorgensen H, Larsen T, Zhao XQ, Eggum BO. The energy value of short-chain fatty acids infused into the caecum of pigs. Br J Nutr 1997;77:745-56. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19970072
  27. Oakenfull D. Physical chemistry of dietary fibre. In: Spiller GA, Editor. Dietary fibre in human nutrition. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press; 2001.
  28. Canh TT, Aarnink AJ, Verstegen MW, Schrama JW. Influence of dietary factors on the pH and ammonia emission of slurry from growing-finishing pigs. J Anim Sci 1998;76:1123-30. https://doi.org/10.2527/1998.7641123x
  29. Myrie SB, Bertolo RF, Sauer WC, Ball RO. Effect of common antinutritive factors and fibrous feedstuffs in pig diets on amino acid digestibilities with special emphasis on threonine. J Anim Sci 2014;86:609-19.
  30. Borin K, Lindberg JE, Ogle RB. Effect of variety and preservation method of cassava leaves on diet digestibility by indigenous and improved pigs. Anim Sci 2005;80:319-24. https://doi.org/10.1079/ASC41560319
  31. Beccaccia A, Cerisuelo A, Calvet S, et al. Effects of nutrition on digestion efficiency and gaseous emissions from slurry in growing pigs: II. Effect of protein source in practical diets. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2015;209:137-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2015.07.021
  32. Agyekum AK, Nyachoti AM. Nutritional and metabolic consequences of feeding high-fiber diets to swine: a review. Engineering 2017;3:716-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENG.2017.03.010