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Chicken novel leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamilies B1 and B3 are transcriptional regulators of major histocompatibility complex class I genes and signaling pathways

  • Truong, Anh Duc (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Hong, Yeojin (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Lee, Janggeun (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Lee, Kyungbaek (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Tran, Ha Thi Thanh (Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, National Institute of Veterinary Research) ;
  • Dang, Hoang Vu (Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, National Institute of Veterinary Research) ;
  • Nguyen, Viet Khong (Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, National Institute of Veterinary Research) ;
  • Lillehoj, Hyun S. (Animal Biosciences and Biotechnology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Services, United States Department of Agriculture) ;
  • Hong, Yeong Ho (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University)
  • Received : 2018.07.27
  • Accepted : 2018.10.04
  • Published : 2019.05.01

Abstract

Objective: The inhibitory leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILRBs) play an important role in innate immunity. The present study represents the first description of the cloning and structural and functional analysis of LILRB1 and LILRB3 isolated from two genetically disparate chicken lines. Methods: Chicken LILRB1-3 genes were identified by bioinformatics approach. Expression studies were performed by transfection, quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Signal transduction was analyzed by western blots, immunoprecipitation and flow cytometric. Cytokine levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Amino acid homology and phylogenetic analyses showed that the homologies of LILRB1 and LILRB3 in the chicken line 6.3 to those proteins in the chicken line 7.2 ranged between 97%-99%, while homologies between chicken and mammal proteins ranged between 13%-19%, and 13%-69%, respectively. Our findings indicate that LILRB1 and LILRB3 subdivided into two groups based on the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIM) present in the transmembrane domain. Chicken line 6.3 has two ITIM motifs of the sequence LxYxxL and SxYxxV while line 7.2 has two ITIM motifs of the sequences LxYxxL and LxYxxV. These motifs bind to SHP-2 (protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11) that plays a regulatory role in immune functions. Moreover, our data indicate that LILRB1 and LILRB3 associated with and activated major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and ${\beta}2-microglobulin$ and induced the expression of transporters associated with antigen processing, which are essential for MHC class I antigen presentation. This suggests that LILRB1 and LILRB3 are transcriptional regulators, modulating the expression of components in the MHC class I pathway and thereby regulating immune responses. Furthermore, LILRB1 and LILRB3 activated Janus kinase2/tyrosine kinase 2 (JAK2/TYK2); signal transducer and activator of transcription1/3 (STAT1/3), and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 genes expressed in Macrophage (HD11) cells, which induced Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines. Conclusion: These data indicate that LILRB1 and LILRB3 are innate immune receptors associated with SHP-2, MHC class I, ${\beta}2-microglobulin$, and they activate the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathway. Thus, our study provides novel insights into the regulation of immunity and immunopathology.

Keywords

Chicken;Leukocyte Immunoglobulin-like Receptor 1 (LILRB1);LILRB3;Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I;Cytokines

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Chung-Ang University, NIFA

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