DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Temporal and spatial variability in the nutritive value of pasture vegetation and supplement feedstuffs for domestic ruminants in Western Kenya

  • Onyango, Alice Anyango (Animal Nutrition and Rangeland Management in the Tropics and Subtropics, Institute of Agricultural Sciences in the Tropics (Hans-Ruthenberg Institute), University of Hohenheim) ;
  • Dickhoefer, Uta (Animal Nutrition and Rangeland Management in the Tropics and Subtropics, Institute of Agricultural Sciences in the Tropics (Hans-Ruthenberg Institute), University of Hohenheim) ;
  • Rufino, Mariana Cristina (Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University) ;
  • Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus (International Livestock Research Institute) ;
  • Goopy, John Patrick (International Livestock Research Institute)
  • Received : 2018.02.08
  • Accepted : 2018.07.23
  • Published : 2019.05.01

Abstract

Objective: The study aimed at quantifying seasonal and spatial variations in availability and nutritive value of herbaceous vegetation on native pastures and supplement feedstuffs for domestic ruminants in Western Kenya. Methods: Samples of herbaceous pasture vegetation (n = 75) and local supplement feedstuffs (n = 46) for cattle, sheep, and goats were collected in 20 villages of three geographic zones (Highlands, Mid-slopes, Lowlands) in Lower Nyando, Western Kenya, over four seasons of one year. Concentrations of dry matter (DM), crude ash (CA), ether extract (EE), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), gross energy (GE), and minerals were determined. Apparent total tract organic matter digestibility (dOM) was estimated from in vitro gas production and proximate nutrient concentrations or chemical composition alone using published prediction equations. Results: Nutrient, energy, and mineral concentrations were 52 to 168 g CA, 367 to 741 g NDF, 32 to 140 g CP, 6 to 45 g EE, 14.5 to 18.8 MJ GE, 7.0 to 54.2 g potassium, 0.01 to 0.47 g sodium, 136 to 1825 mg iron, and 0.07 to 0.52 mg selenium/kg DM. The dOM was 416 to 650 g/kg organic matter but differed depending on the estimation method. Nutritive value of pasture herbage was superior to most supplement feedstuffs, but its value strongly declined in the driest season. Biomass yields and concentrations of CP and potassium in pasture herbage were highest in the Highlands amongst the three zones. Conclusion: Availability and nutritive value of pasture herbage and supplement feedstuffs greatly vary between seasons and geographical zones, suggesting need for season- and region-specific feeding strategies. Local supplement feedstuffs partly compensate for nutritional deficiencies. However, equations to accurately predict dOM and improved knowledge on nutritional characteristics of tropical ruminant feedstuffs are needed to enhance livestock production in this and similar environments.

Keywords

Feed Evaluation;Grazing Livestock;Pasture Herbage;Ruminant Nutrition;Seasonal Variation

References

  1. Thornton PK. Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects. Philos Trans R Soc LondonSeries B, Biol Sci 2010;365: 2853-67. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0134
  2. Jung HG, Allen MS. Characteristics of plant cell walls affecting intake and digestibility of forages by ruminants. J Anim Sci 1995;73:2774-90. https://doi.org/10.2527/1995.7392774x
  3. Government of Kenya. Agricultural sector development strategy: 2010-2020. Nairobi, Kenya: 2010.
  4. Lukuyu BA, Kitalyi A, Franzel S, Duncan A, Baltenweck I. Constraints and options to enhancing production of high quality feeds in dairy production in Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda. Nairobi, Kenya: 2009.
  5. Underwood EJ, Suttle NF. The mineral nutrition of livestock. Third. Wallingford, UK: CAB International; 1999.
  6. Hughes M, Mlambo V, Jennings PGA, Lallo CHO. The accuracy of predicting in vitro ruminal organic matter digestibility from chemical components of tropical pastures varies with season and harvesting method. Trop Agric 2014;91:131-46.
  7. Verchot L, Boye A, Zomer R. Baseline report Nyando River Basin: Western Kenya Integrated Ecosystem Management Project findings from the baseline surveys. Nairobi, Kenya: 2008.
  8. Sijmons K, Kiplimo J, Forch W, et al. CCAFS Site Atlas-Nyando/Katuk Odeyo. Copenhagen, Denmark: The CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security; 2013.
  9. Rufino MC, Quiros C, Boureima M, et al. Developing generic tools for characterizing agricultural systems for climate and global change studies (IMPACTlite-phase 2). Nairobi, Kenya: 2013.
  10. Alam M, Sumy SA, Parh YA. Selection of the samples with probability proportional to size. Sci J Appl Math Stat 2015;3: 230-3. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.sjams.20150305.13
  11. Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci 1991;74:3583-97. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
  12. VDLUFA (Verband Deutscher Landwirtschaftlicher Untersuchungs-und Forschungsanstalten). Die chemische Untersuchung von Futtermitteln (The chemical analysis of feedstuffs). Methodenbuch Vol. 3. Darmstadt, Germany: VDLUFA Verlag; 2007; in German.
  13. VDLUFA. Methodenbuch VII Umweltanalytik. Darmstadt, Germany: VDLUFA Verlag; 2011.
  14. Menke KH, Steingass H. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Anim Res Dev 1988;28:7-55.
  15. Matlebyane MM, Ng’ambi JWW, Aregheore EM. Relationships between chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of some common forage species used for ruminant livestock production in three chief areas of capricorn region, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Res J Agric Biol Sci 2009;5:138-49.
  16. Rubanza CDK, Shem MN, Bakengesa SS, Ichinohe T, Fujihara T. Content of macro and micro minerals of deferred forages in silvo-pastoral traditional fodder banks (Ngitiri) of Meatu district of central north-western Tanzania. Livest Res Rural Dev 2005;17:Article #141.
  17. Wondatir Z. Livestock production systems in relation with feed availability in the highlands and central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Haramaya, Ethiopia: Haramaya University; 2010.
  18. Mlay PS, Pereka A, Phiri EC, et al. Feed value of selected tropical grasses, legumes and concentrates. Vet Arh 2006;76:53-63.
  19. NRC (National Research Council). Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle: Seventh revised edition, 2001. Washington, DC, USA: National Academies Press; 2001.
  20. Givens DI, Everington JM, Adamson AH. The nutritive value of spring-grown herbage produced on farms throughout England and wales over four years. I. The effect of stage of maturity and other factors on chemical composition, apparent digestibility and energy values measured in vivo. Anim Feed Sci Technol 1989;27:157-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(89)90140-5
  21. Tergas LE, Blue WG. Nitrogen and phosphorus in Jaraguagrass (Hyparrhenia rufa (Nees) Stapf) during the dry season in a tropical savanna as affected by nitrogen fertilization. Agron J 1971;63:6-9. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1971.00021962006300010003x
  22. AFRC (Agricultural and Food Research Council). Energy and protein requirements for ruminants: an advisory manual prepared by the AFRC Technical Committee on Responses to Nutrients. Wallingford, UK: CAB International; 1993.
  23. Buxton DR. Quality-related characteristics of forages as influenced by plant environment and agronomic factors. Anim Feed Sci Technol 1996;59:37-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(95)00885-3
  24. Pelster D, Rufino M, Rosenstock T, et al. Smallholder farms in eastern African tropical highlands have low soil greenhouse gas fluxes. Biogeosciences 2017;14:187-202. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-187-2017
  25. Steffens D, Hutsch BW, Eschholz T, Losak T, Schubert S. Water logging may inhibit plant growth primarily by nutrient deficiency rather than nutrient toxicity. Plant Soil Environ 2005;51: 545-52.
  26. Dickhoefer U, Buerkert A, Brinkmann K, Schlecht E. The role of pasture management for sustainable livestock production in semi-arid subtropical mountain regions. J Arid Environ 2010;74:962-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2009.12.006
  27. Goopy JP, Onyango AA, Dickhoefer U, Butterbach-bahl K. A new approach for improving emission factors for enteric methane emissions of cattle in smallholder systems of East Africa-Results for Nyando, Western Kenya. Agric Syst 2018; 161:72-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2017.12.004
  28. Van Man N, Wiktorsson H. Forage yield, nutritive value, feed intake and digestibility of three grass species as affected by harvest frequency. Trop Grassl 2003;37:101-10.
  29. Lukuyu BA, Kinyua J, Agili S, Gachuiri CK, Low J. Evaluation of sweetpotato varieties for the potential of dual-purpose in different agroecological zones of Kenya. In: Vanlauwe B, van Asten P, Blomme G, editors. Challenges and opportunities for agricultural intensification of the humid highland systems of Sub-Saharan Africa. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer; 2014. p. 217-31.
  30. Shisia SK, Ngure V, Nyambaka H, Jumba I, Oduor F. Assessment of mineral deficiencies among grazing areas in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Int J Nutr Food Sci 2014;3:44-8. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijnfs.20140302.15