DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of diet and roughage quality, and period of the day on diurnal feeding behaviour patterns of sheep and goats under subtropical conditions

  • Moyo, Mehluli (Animal and Poultry Science, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal) ;
  • Adebayo, Rasheed Adekunle (Animal and Poultry Science, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal) ;
  • Nsahlai, Ignatius Verla (Animal and Poultry Science, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal)
  • Received : 2017.12.12
  • Accepted : 2018.06.11
  • Published : 2019.05.01

Abstract

Objective: This study investigated the effect of diet and roughage quality (RQ) on dry matter intake, duration and number of daytime and night-time eating bouts, idling sessions and ruminating activities in small ruminants. Methods: In Exp 1 and 2, RQ was improved by urea treatment of veld hay, while diet quality was improved by supplementing with Lucerne hay (Exp 3), sunflower meal and lespedeza (Exp 4), fish meal (Exp 5a), and sunflower meal (Exp 5b). In all experiments goats and sheep were blocked by weight and randomly allocated to experimental diets. Day-time (06:00 to 18:00 h) and night time (18:00 to 06:00 h) feeding behaviour activities were recorded. Results: RQ affected rumination index in Exp 1, but not in Exp 2, 3, and 5. Time spent eating and ruminating was affected by RQ (Exp 1, 3, and 4), period of day (all experiments) and their interaction (Exp 1). Intake rates (g/bout and g/min) were similar across diets. Period of day affected the duration of rumination sessions (Exp 1, 2, and 3); diet or RQ affected the duration of eating bouts (Exp 3) and rumination sessions (Exp 1 and 2). RQ had a significant effect on the duration of eating sessions in Exp 3 only, whilst period of day affected this same behaviour in Exp 2 and 3. Generally, goats and sheep fed on roughage alone ruminate at night and eat more during the day but those fed a roughage and supplemented with Lucerne hay spent more time ruminating than eating. Time spent eating and ruminating had positive correlations to crude protein and feed intake. Intake rates had strong positive correlations to intake. Conclusion: Chewing time, number of eating and ruminating sessions, and duration of eating bouts are physiologically controlled in small ruminants, though chewing time requires isometric scaling during modelling of intake.

Keywords

Feeding Behaviour;Feed Quality;Goats;Predation Risk;Sheep

Acknowledgement

Grant : Intake of roughage by ruminant herbivores

Supported by : National Research Foundation

References

  1. Degen AA. Sheep and goat milk in pastoral societies. Small Rumin Res 2007;68:7-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.09.020
  2. Salem HB, Smith T. Feeding strategies to increase small ruminant production in dry environments. Small Rumin Res 2008;77:174-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2008.03.008
  3. Osuji PO, Fernandez-Rivera S, Odenyo A. Improving fibre utilisation and protein supply in animals fed poor quality roughages. In: Wallace RJ, Lahlou-Kassi A, editors. Rumen ecology research planning. Proceedings of a Workshop Held at International Livestock Research Institute 1995. 1995 March 13-18; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: International Livestock Research Institute; 1995. p. 9-30.
  4. Emmans G, Kyriazakis I. Consequences of genetic change in farm animals on food intake and feeding behaviour: Nutrition and Behaviour Group Symposium on Future Perspectives in Nutrition and Behaviour Research. Proc Nutr Soc 2001;60:115-25. https://doi.org/10.1079/PNS200059
  5. Newman JA, Parsons AJ, Thornley JHM, Penning PD, Krebs JR. Optimal diet selection by a general herbivore. Funct Ecol 1995;9:255-68. https://doi.org/10.2307/2390572
  6. Abdou N, Nsahlai IV, Chimonyo M. Effects of groundnut haulms supplementation on millet stover intake, digestibility and growth performance of lambs. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2011;169:176-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.07.002
  7. Chermiti A, Teller E, Vanbelle M, Collignon G, Matatu B. Effect of ammonia or urea treatment of straw on chewing behaviour and ruminal digestion processes in non-lactating dairy cows. Anim Feed Sci Technol 1994;47:41-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(94)90158-9
  8. Trach NX, Mo M, Dan CX. Effects of treatment of rice straw with lime and/or urea on responses of growing cattle. Livest Res Rural Dev 2001;13:Article #47.
  9. Sauvant D, Baumont R, Faverdin P. Development of a mechanistic model of intake and chewing activities of sheep. J Anim Sci 1996;74:2785-802. https://doi.org/10.2527/1996.74112785x
  10. Warly L, Fariani A, Mawuenyegah OP, et al. Studies on the utilisation of rice straw by sheep. IV. Effect of soybean meal and barley supplementation on eating and rumination behaviour. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 1994;7:273-7. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1994.273
  11. AOAC. Official methods of analysis. 16th ed. Washington DC, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists; 1999.
  12. Sauvant D, Schmidely P, Daudin JJ, St-Pierre NR. Meta-analyses of experimental data in animal nutrition. Animal 2008;2:1203-14. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731108002280
  13. Abijaoude JA, Morand-Fehr P, Tessier J, Schmidely PH, Sauvant D. Diet effect on the daily feeding behaviour, frequency and characteristics of meals in dairy goats. Livest Prod Sci 2000;64:29-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(00)00173-1
  14. Baumont R, Prache S, Meuret M, Morand-Fehr P. How forage characteristics influence behaviour and intake in small ruminants:a review. Livest Prod Sci 2000;64:15-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(00)00172-X
  15. Arnold GW, De Boer G, Boundy CAP. The influence of odour and taste on the food preferences and food intake of sheep. Aust J Agric Res 1980;31:571-87. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9800571
  16. Mesfin R, Ledin I. Comparison of feeding urea-treated teff and barley straw based diets with hay based diet to crossbred dairy cows on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition and economic benefits. Livest Res Rural Dev 2004;16:Article #104.
  17. Penning PD, Parsons AJ, Orr RJ, Harvey A, Champion RA. Intake and behaviour responses by sheep, in different physiological states, when grazing monocultures of grass or white clover. Appl Anim Behav Sci 1995;45:63-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1591(95)00602-O
  18. Rutter SM, Orr RJ, Penning PD, Yarrow NH, Champion RA. Ingestive behaviour of heifers grazing monocultures of ryegrass or white clover. Appl Anim Behav Sci 2002;76:1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(01)00205-2
  19. Prache S. Intake rate, intake per bite and time per bite of lactating ewes on vegetative and reproductive swards. Appl Anim Behav Sci 1997;52:53-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(96)01139-2
  20. Baumont R, Cohen-Salmon D, Prache S, Sauvant D. A mechanistic model of intake and grazing behaviour in sheep integrating sward architecture and animal decisions. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2004;112:5-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2003.10.005
  21. Baumont R, Jailler M, Dulphy JP. Dynamic of voluntary intake, feeding behaviour and rumen function in sheep fed three contrasting types of hay. Ann Zootech 1997;46:231-44. https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:19970304
  22. Dominigue BMF, Dellow DW, Barry TN. The efficiency of chewing during eating and ruminating in goats and sheep. Br J Nutr 1991;65:355-63. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19910096
  23. Jalali AR, Norgaard P, Weisbjerg MR, Nielsen MO. Effect of forage quality on intake, chewing activity, faecal particle size distribution, and digestibility of neutral detergent fibre in sheep, goats, and llamas. Small Rumin Res 2012;103:143-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2011.09.004
  24. Chenost M, Kayouli C. Roughage utilization in warm climates. FAO Animal Production Health Paper 1997. Article 135.
  25. Shipley LA, Gross JE, Spalinger DE, Thompson Hobbs N, Wunder BA. The scaling of intake rate in mammalian herbivores. Am Nat 1994;143:1055-82. https://doi.org/10.1086/285648
  26. Fritz J, Hummel J, Kienzle E, et al. Comparative chewing efficiency in mammalian herbivores. Oikos 2009;118:1623-32. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2009.17807.x
  27. Kaske M, Beyebach M, Hailu Y, Goebel W, Wagner S. The assessment of the frequency of chews during rumination enables an estimation of rumination activity in hay-fed sheep. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 2002;86:83-9. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0396.2002.00360.x
  28. Welch JG. Rumination, particle size and passage from the rumen. J Anim Sci 1982;54:885-94. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1982.544885x
  29. Deswysen AG, Ehrlein HJ. Silage intake, rumination and pseudorumination activity in sheep studied by radiography and jaw movement recordings. Br J Nutr 1981;46:327-35. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19810038
  30. Kaske M, Groth A. Changes in factors affecting the rate of digesta passage during pregnancy and lactation in sheep fed on hay. Reprod Nutr Dev 1997;37:573-88. https://doi.org/10.1051/rnd:19970508
  31. Minervino AHH, Kaminishikawahara CM, Soares FB, et al. Behaviour of confined sheep fed with different concentrate sources. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 2014;66:1163-70. https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-6366
  32. Nsahlai IV, Umunna NN, Osuji PO. An empirical model for predicting voluntary intake of forage-legume-supplemented roughages by cattle. In: All Africa conference on animal agriculture 1996. 1996 April 1-4; Pretoria, South Africa: South African Society of Animal Science; 1996. p 10.4.
  33. Moyo M, Adebayo RA, Nsahlai IV. Effect of roughage quality, period of day and time lapse after meal termination on rumen digesta load in goats and sheep. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2018;31:1183-96. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.17.0323
  34. Mertens DR. Application of theoretical mathematical models to cell wall digestion and forage intake in ruminants [PhD thesis]. New York, USA: Cornell University; 1973.
  35. Sebata A, Ndlovu LR. Effect of shoot morphology on browse selection by free ranging goats in a semi-arid savanna. Livest Sci 2012;144:96-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2011.11.001
  36. Nsahlai IV, Umunna NN. Comparison between reconstituted sheep faeces and rumen fluid inocula and between in vitro and in sacco digestibility methods as predictors of intake and in vivo digestibility. J Agric Sci 1996;126:235-48. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600073196
  37. Gregorini P. Diurnal grazing pattern: its physiological basis and strategic management. Anim Prod Sci 2012;52:416-30. https://doi.org/10.1071/AN11250
  38. Von Engelhardt W, Haarmeyer P, Kaske M, Lechner-Doll M. Chewing activities and oesophageal motility during feed intake, rumination and eructation in camels. J Comp Physiol B 2006;176:117-24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00360-005-0027-x
  39. Bakare AG, Chimonyo M. Seasonal variation in time spent foraging by indigenous goat genotypes in a semi-arid rangeland in South Africa. Livest Sci 2011;135:251-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2010.07.010