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Correction of Lunar Irradiation Effect and Change Detection Using Suomi-NPP Data

VIIRS DNB 영상의 달빛 영향 보정 및 변화 탐지

  • Lee, Boram (Department of Geoinformation Engineering, Sejong University) ;
  • Lee, Yoon-Kyung (Department of Energy Resources Engineering, Sejong University) ;
  • Kim, Donghan (Department of Geoinformation Engineering, Sejong University) ;
  • Kim, Sang-Wan (Department of Energy Resources Engineering, Sejong University)
  • 이보람 (세종대학교 지구정보공학과) ;
  • 이윤경 (세종대학교 에너지자원공학과) ;
  • 김동한 (세종대학교 지구정보공학과) ;
  • 김상완 (세종대학교 에너지자원공학과)
  • Received : 2019.03.13
  • Accepted : 2019.03.21
  • Published : 2019.04.30

Abstract

Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) data help to enable rapid emergency responses through detection of the artificial and natural disasters occurring at night. The DNB data without correction of lunar irradiance effect distributed by Korea Ocean Science Center (KOSC) has advantage for rapid change detection because of direct receiving. In this study, radiance differences according to the phase of the moon was analyzed for urban and mountain areas in Korean Peninsula using the DNB data directly receiving to KOSC. Lunar irradiance correction algorithm was proposed for the change detection. Relative correction was performed by regression analysis between the selected pixels considering the land cover classification in the reference DNB image during the new moon and the input DNB image. As a result of daily difference image analysis, the brightness value change in urban area and mountain area was ${\pm}30$ radiance and below ${\pm}1$ radiance respectively. The object based change detection was performed after the extraction of the main object of interest based on the average image of time series data in order to reduce the matching and geometric error between DNB images. The changes in brightness occurring in mountainous areas were effectively detected after the calibration of lunar irradiance effect, and it showed that the developed technology could be used for real time change detection.

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Fig. 1. Flowchart of lunar correction method.

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Fig. 2. Scatterplot between new moon and full moon for each land cover class such as forest, urban, water, agriculture.

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Fig. 3. Example of forest pixel: (a) SDR image acquired on Nov. 18, 2017 at new moon, (b) Nov. 4, 2017 at full moon, (c) Euclidean distance of land cover type with respect to center pixel, (d) distribution of land cover class in test area, (e), scatterplot of the values in (a) and (b).

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Fig. 4. Example of urban pixel: (a) SDR image acquired on Nov. 18, 2017 at new moon, (b) Nov. 4, 2017 at full moon, (c) Euclidean distance of land cover type with respect to center pixel, (d) distribution of land cover class in test area, (e), scatterplot of the values in (a) and (b).

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Fig. 8. Color composites of DNB images.

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Fig. 9. DNB images in different lunar phases after relative correction.

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Fig. 10. Objects and local maximum points for change detection.

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Fig. 11. Change detection using time series data at T1, T2, T3 and T4 area.

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Fig. 12. Change detection with threshold of 10 at the slope in High1 resort (T4).

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Fig. 13. Checkerboard plot showing the results of change detection using each time series data (first row: only one data, last row: all the data of time series).

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Fig. 5. (a) SDR image acquired on Nov. 18, 2017 during the new moon on (b) SDR image acquired on Nov. 4, 2017 during the full moon, (c) Corrected SDR image of Nov. 4, 2017.

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Fig. 6. (a) Box plot of the daily SDR value in the mountain area, (b) Box plot of the daily SDR value after calibration of lunar irradiation effect in the mountain area, (c) Box plot of the daily SDR value in the urban area, (d) Box plot of the daily SDR value after calibration of lunar irradiation effect in the urban area.

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Fig. 7. (a) Mean and standard deviation of the daily difference in the mountain area, (b) Mean and standard deviation of the daily difference after calibration of lunar irradiation effect in the mountain area, (c) Mean and standard deviation of the daily difference in the urban area, (d) Mean and standard deviation of the daily difference after calibration of lunar irradiation effect in the urban area.

Table 1. VIIRS channels specifications

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Table 2. Coordinate system of collected SDR data

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Table 3. Phases of the Moon during Nov.-Dec. 2017

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Table 4. Mean and standard deviation of the daily difference before and after calibration of lunar irradiation effect

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