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Exposure and Risk Assessment of Nitrogen Dioxide and Ozone for Sub-population Groups using Monte-Carlo Simulations

Monte-Carlo 모의실험을 통한 부분 인구집단별 이산화질소와 오존의 노출 및 위해성 평가

  • Park, Jinhyeon (Department of Occupational Health, Daegu Catholic University) ;
  • Ryu, Hyeonsu (Department of Occupational Health, Daegu Catholic University) ;
  • Yang, So Young (School of Energy Engineering, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Park, Yunkyung (Department of Occupational Health, Daegu Catholic University) ;
  • Heo, Jung (Department of Occupational Health, Daegu Catholic University) ;
  • Kim, Eunchae (Department of Occupational Health, Daegu Catholic University) ;
  • Choe, Youngtae (Department of Occupational Health, Daegu Catholic University) ;
  • Cho, Mansu (Department of Occupational Health, Daegu Catholic University) ;
  • Yang, Wonho (Department of Occupational Health, Daegu Catholic University)
  • 박진현 (대구가톨릭대학교 산업보건학과) ;
  • 류현수 (대구가톨릭대학교 산업보건학과) ;
  • 양소영 (경북대학교 에너지공학부) ;
  • 박윤경 (대구가톨릭대학교 산업보건학과) ;
  • 허정 (대구가톨릭대학교 산업보건학과) ;
  • 김은채 (대구가톨릭대학교 산업보건학과) ;
  • 최영태 (대구가톨릭대학교 산업보건학과) ;
  • 조만수 (대구가톨릭대학교 산업보건학과) ;
  • 양원호 (대구가톨릭대학교 산업보건학과)
  • Received : 2019.03.09
  • Accepted : 2019.03.28
  • Published : 2019.04.30

Abstract

Objectives: Although the risk assessments for nitrogen dioxide ($NO_2$) and ozone ($O_3$) have been extensively studied, most of the existing risk assessments were limited mainly to indoor environments such as workplaces, schools, and multi-use facilities. Therefore, integrated risk assessment is needed to consider exposure in all microenvironments, including outdoors. The purpose of this study was to assess the differences in risk among sub-population groups according to time-activity patterns and reported concentrations, as well as the lifetime risk of Koreans. Methods: In this study, we estimated time-weighted average exposure concentrations of $NO_2$ and $O_3$ for preschool children, students, housewives, workers, and seniors using residential time and indoor concentrations (house, school or workplace, other), outdoors, and transport by meta-analysis method. The risk for $NO_2$ and $O_3$ were assessed by hazard quotient using reference concentrations 30 and 60 ppb, respectively. The risk assessments were conducted through 1,000,000 Monte-Carlo simulations for probabilistic analysis. Results: Preschool children, students, housewives, workers, and seniors spent 91.9, 86.0, 79.8, 82.2, and 77.3% of their day in a house, school, or workplace, respectively. The risk assessment for the lifetime of a housewife and a worker showed that 33.8 and 28.4% of hazard quotients of $NO_2$ exceed 1, respectively, and more than 99% of hazard quotient of $O_3$ were less than 1. Conclusions: The risk of $NO_2$ and $O_3$ by sub-population group and for the lifetime of housewives and workers were assessed. The risk for $NO_2$ was higher than for $O_3$ and showed a different risk by sub-population group. Both $NO_2$ and $O_3$ showed a higher risk for housewives than for workers. This study can be used as a basis for lifetime exposure and risk assessment for $NO_2$ and $O_3$.

Acknowledgement

Grant : 실내외 환경유해인자에 의한 수용체 중심 노출 평가 플랫폼 개발

Supported by : 환경부

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