- Volume 45 Issue 2
DOI QR Code
Differences of Chemical Exposure Levels according to Residential and Personal Life-style Characteristics of Korean adult population - from Korean National Environmental Health Survey
주거환경 및 개인 생활습관에 따른 화학물질 노출수준 차이 - 국민환경보건기초조사
- Hwang, Moon-Young (Environmental Health Research Division, National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
- Hong, Soo-Yoen (Environmental Health Research Division, National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
- Kwon, Young-Min (Environmental Health Research Division, National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
- Jo, Hye-Jung (Environmental Health Research Division, National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
- Park, Choong-Hee (Environmental Health Research Division, National Institute of Environmental Research)
- Received : 2019.04.03
- Accepted : 2019.04.18
- Published : 2019.04.30
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine environmental chemical exposure related to residential and personal lifestyle characteristics in the adult Korean population. The observations of this study can provide information useful for developing reduction approaches for exposure to chemicals among the general adult population. Methods: The second stage of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNHES) was conducted from 2012 to 2014, with 6,478 persons participating. Using the results of the survey, the relationship between exposure levels of heavy metals and organic chemicals and exposure factors, e.g. residential and personal lifestyle characteristics, were analyzed. Results: The exposure levels of VOCs and PAHs were significantly lower in participants living at a distance of more than 100 m from roads versus living closer to roads. Home ventilation lowered VOC and PAH exposure but did not lower chemical exposure from household products. Use of public transportation showed lower exposure to heavy metals, VOCs, and PAHs. Current smoker was significantly higher for levels of heavy metals, VOCs, and PAHs, and the exposure trend was similar for current drinkers. Physical activity was related with higher exposure to phthalates and environmental phenols. Conclusion: Our observations based on a nationally representative population for Korea show that exposure to chemicals varies by residential and personal lifestyle, and this should be considered for developing appropriate mitigation measures and policies. Given the health concerns surrounding environmental chemicals, it is necessary to develop comprehensive measures to reduce chemical exposure.
Supported by : 국립환경과학원
- National Research Council, 2006. Human biomoni-toring for environmental chemicals. In: Committee on Human Biomonitoring for Environmental Toxicants. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
- Angerer J, Bird MG, Burke TA, Doerrer NG, Needham L, Robison SH, Sheldon L, Zenick H. Meeting Report: Strategic Biomonitoring Initiatives: Moving the Science Forward. Toxicol. Sci. published online June 19th, 2006, doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfl042. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfl042
- Kommission Human-Biomonitoring des Umweltbundesamtes, Human- biomonitoring: Definitionen, Moglichkeiten und Voraussetzungen. Bundesgesundheitsbl. 1996; 39, 213-214.
- Becker K, Kaus S, Krause C, Lepom P, Schulz C, Seiwert M, Seifert B, German Environmental Survey 1998 (GerES III): environmental pollutants in blood of the German population. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health 2002; 205, 297-308. https://doi.org/10.1078/1438-4639-00155
- CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2015. Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, Update Tables. Washington, DC: CDC.
- Health Canada. 2013. Second Report on Human Biomonitoring of Environmental Chemicals in Canada: Results of the Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycle 2 (2009-2011).
- Park CH and Ryu SD. Status and prospects of Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS). J Environ Health Sci. 2014; 40(1): 1-9.
- Park CH, Choi WH, Hwang MY, Lee YM. Kim SJ, Ryu SD, Lee IA, Paek DM, Choi KH. Association between urinary phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A levels, and thyroid hormones among Korean adults population-Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014. Sci. Total Environ. 2017; 584-585: 950-957. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.144
- Hwang MY, Lee YM, Kung SW, Hong SY, You JY, Park CH. Relationship between bisphenol A exposure and obesity in Korean adults from the second stage of KoNEHS (2012-2014). J Environ Health Sci. 2018; 44(4): 370-379.
- Deshmukh-Taskar P, Micklas TA, Yang SJ, Berenson GS. Does food group consumption vary by differences in socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors in young adults? The Bogalusa Heart Study. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007; 223-234.
- Kobrosly RW, Parlett LE, Stahlhut R, Barrett ES, Swan SH. Socioeconomic factors and phthalate metabolite concentrations among United States women of reproductive age. Environ Research. 2012; 115: 11-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2012.03.008
- Park CH, Hwang MY, Kim HJ, Ryu SD, Lee KJ, Choi KH, Paek DM. Early snapshot on exposure to environmental chemicals among Korea adultsresults of the first Korean National Environmental Health Survey (2009-2011). Int J. Hyg Environ Health. 2016; 219: 398-404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.04.001
- Park HG, Ha NY, Kim DH, Kim JH, Lee CK, Kim KH, Ryu JY. Relationship between residence characteristics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in housewives: second Korean National Environmental Health Survey (2012-2014). Ann of Occupa and Environ Medicine. 2018; 30: 23. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40557-018-0236-x
- Castro D. Sleza K, Delerue_Matos C, Alvim-Ferraz MC, Morais S, Pereira MC. Contribution of traffic and tabacco smoke in the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on outdoor and indoor PM2.5. Global Nest Journal. 2010; 12: 3-11.
- Oh ES, Kim GB, Hwang SH, Ha MN, Lee KM. 2017. Longitudinal trends of blood lead levels before and after leaded gasoline regulation in Korea. Environ Health Toxicol. doi:10.5620/ehte2017019.
Pasquier A and Andre M. 2016. Considering criteria related to spatial variabilities for the assessment of air pollution from traffic. 14th World Conference on Transport Research (WCTR 2016), Transport Research Procedia.
- Benfenati E, Valzacchi S, Mariani G, Airoldi L, Fanelli R. PCDD, PCDF, PCB, PAH, cadmium and lead in roadside soil: relationship between road distance and concentration. Chemosphere. 1992; 24(8): 1077-1083. https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(92)90198-Z
- Lee HS, Cho YH, Park SO, Kye SH, Kim BH, et al. DIetary exposure of the Korean population to arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury. J Food Comp and Analysis. 2006; 19: S31-S37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2005.10.006
- Park CH, Hwang MY, Baek YW, Jung SW, Lee YM, Paek DM, Choi KH. 2019. Urinary phthalate metabolites and bisohenol A levels in the Korean adlut population in association with sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics: Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014. Int J Hygiene & Environ Health. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2019.02.003. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2019.02.003
- Jo WK and Lee JH. In-vehicle levels of naphthalene and monocyclic aromatic compounds according to vehicle type. Environ Eng Res. 2009; 14(3): 180-185. https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2009.14.3.180
- Hesterberg TW, Lapin CA, Bunn WB. A conparison of emissions from vehicles fueled diesel or compressed natural gas. Environ Sci Technol. 2008; 42(17): 6437-6455. https://doi.org/10.1021/es071718i
- Bakhtiari R, Hadei M, Hopke PK, Shahsavani A, Rastkari N, Kermani M, Yarahmadi M, Ghaderpoori A. Investigation of in-cabin volitile organic compounds (VOCs) in taxi; influence of vehicle’s age, model, fuel, and refueling. Environ pollution. 2018; 237: 248-355.
- Kho YL and Lee EH. Comparison of concentration of urinary metabolites of PAHs from smokers and nonsmokers. J Environ Health Sci. 2011; 37(6): 474-481.
- Ha KC. A study on volatile organic compounds (VOC) in environmental tobacco smokers (ETS) at indoor office environments. J Environ Health Sci. 2001; 27(3): 87-98.
- Oh JS and Lee SH. Pb, Hg and Cd concentration of blood and exposure-related factors. J Korea Acdemia-industrial cooperation Society. 2015; 16(3): 2089-2099. https://doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2015.16.3.2089
- Sui Z, Zheng M, Zhang M, Rangan A. 2016. Water and beverage consumptiom: Analysis of the Australian 2011-2012 National Nutrtion and Physical Activity Survey. Nitrients. 6,678. doi:10.3390/nu8110678. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8110678
- Erythropel HC, Maric M, Nicell JA, Leask RL, Yargeau V. Leaching of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from plastic containers and the question of human exposure. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014; 98: 9967-9981. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-014-6183-8
- Harley KG, Kogut K, Madrigal DS, Cardenas M, Vera IA, et al. Reducing phthalate, paraben, and phenol exposure from personal care products in adolescent girls: Findings from the HERMOSA Intervention Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2016; 124(10): 1600-1607. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510514
- Kelly P, Kahlmeier S, Götschi T, et al., 2014. Systematic review and meta-analysis of reduction in all-cause mortality from walking and cycling and shape of dose response relationship. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 11(1), 132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12966-014-0132-x. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-014-0132-x
- Mueller N, Rojas-Rueda D, Cole-Hunter T, et al., 2015. Health impact assessment of active transportation:A systematic review. Prev. Med. (Baltim) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.04.010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.04.010