기업가 정신 교육과 창업 의도: 창업 실패에 대한 두려움, 창업 동아리를 중심으로

Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurial Intention: Fear to Start-up and Start-up Communities in Class

  • 투고 : 2019.01.10
  • 심사 : 2019.02.15
  • 발행 : 2019.04.30

초록

창업 실패에 대한 두려움은 창업 의지에 부정적 영향을 미치는 것으로 알려져 왔다. 대학생이 창업에 대한 두려움을 극복하고 실질적인 도움을 받도록 지원하는 정책이 필요한 이유다. 혁신적이고 진취적인 창업가를 육성하려는 교육 목표를 세우고 대학들은 기업가 정신 교육을 실시해 왔으나 현재까지 건설적인 결과가 나왔다고 보기는 어렵다. 선택적으로 기업가 정신 교육을 수강하는 관행을 채택하기보다는 전체 대학 신입생의 필수 교양으로 과목을 수강하게 할 필요성이 제기된다. 본 연구는 기업가 정신 교육의 대상을 적극적으로 넓혀 4년제 대학 입학생 전체를 대상으로 실시할 경우 교육 실시가 창업 의도와 창업 실패에 대한 두려움에 미치는 영향을 살펴본다. 또한 기업가 정신교육의 수강생들이 느끼는 셀프-리더십과 자기 효능감과 기업가 정신 사이의 관련성에 대해서도 알아본다. 기업가 정신 교육의 중요한 수단 가운데 하나인 창업 동아리 참여의 조절 효과에 대한 분석도 포함한다. 약 2,500명의 신입생이 수강하는 기업가 정신 교육 과목을 대상으로 실증 연구를 수행한 결과 기업가 정신 교육을 수강한 학생들이 느끼는 창업 실패에 대한 두려움은 유의미한 수준으로 높았다. 그럼에도 불구하고 기업가 정신 교육의 성과는 창업 의지를 높이는 일에 도움이 되는 것으로 나타났다. 창업 동아리 활동이 유의미한 조절 효과를 보여주었다. 본 연구는 기업가 정신 교육과 관련하여 대학 신입생을 대상으로 실시된 실증 연구라는 점에서 의의를 찾을 수 있다. 또한 창업 동아리의 조절 효과를 규명하여 기존 연구의 이해를 넓혔다는 점도 중요하다.

Fear to start-up failures has been known to have a negative impact on entrepreneurial intention. This is one of the reasons why the government adopts a policy to help university students overcome their fear of start-ups. Setting educational goals to foster innovative and progressive entrepreneurs, universities have been conducting entrepreneurship education, but it is hard to say that constructive results have been achieved so far. Rather than adopting the practice of optional entrepreneurship education, there is a need to have all university freshmen mandatorily take the course of entrepreneurship education. This study aims to uncover the impact of more aggressive entrepreneurship education position in the university by analyzing empirical data. The relationship between an entrepreneurship level and entrepreneurial intention was tested, and start-up fear was also considered. In the research model, self-leadership and self-efficacy were included as regressors to entrepreneurship levels. Especially, this study tested moderate effects of start-up community during the course. The results from the sample of 2,500 freshmen indicate that entrepreneurship level is significantly improved by taking the course; however, fear to start-up failures remains still. In addition, empirical findings show that putting start-up communities in the entrepreneurship education helps students by moderating self-leadership and self-efficacy. This study extends our knowledge of entrepreneurship education in university by analyzing university freshmen data empirically.

키워드

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