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Protective effects of Cirsium japonicum var. maackii against amyloid beta-induced neurotoxicity in C6 glial cells

  • Kim, Ji Hyun (Department of Food Science and Nutrition & Kimchi Research Institute, Pusan National University) ;
  • Kim, Min Jeong (Department of Food Science and Nutrition & Kimchi Research Institute, Pusan National University) ;
  • Choi, Ji Myung (Department of Food Science and Nutrition & Kimchi Research Institute, Pusan National University) ;
  • Lee, Sanghyun (Department of Plant Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Cho, Eun Ju (Department of Food Science and Nutrition & Kimchi Research Institute, Pusan National University)
  • Received : 2019.05.05
  • Accepted : 2019.05.28
  • Published : 2019.06.01

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease associated with age, and amyloid beta ($A{\beta}$) is known to cause Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Cirsium japonicum var. maackii extract and its fractions against $A{\beta}$-induced neurotoxicity in C6 glial cells. The cells treated with $A{\beta}_{25-35}$ showed a decrease in cell viability and an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production compared with the non-treated cells. However, the cells treated with the C. japonicum var. maackii extract and its fractions increased the cell viability and inhibited the $A{\beta}$-induced ROS production. These results demonstrate the neuroprotective effects of C. japonicum var. maackii against $A{\beta}$. To further examine the protective mechanism, we measured inflammation and apoptosis related protein expressions. The cells treated with extract and fractions from C. japonicum var. maackii down-regulated inflammatory related proteins such as cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin $(IL)-1{\beta}$, and IL-6, and attenuated apoptosis related proteins including B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) associated X protein/Bcl-2 ratio. In particular, the ethanol and ethylacetate fraction exhibited higher inhibitory effect against ROS production and apoptosis-related protein expressions among the extract and the other fractions. Therefore, this study demonstrated the protective effects of C. japonicum var. maackii extract and its fractions against $A{\beta}$-induced neurotoxicity in C6 glial cells through the regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, suggesting that it might have potential as a therapeutic for AD.

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Fig. 1. Effect of Cirsium japonicum var. maackii extract (ext.) and fractions (fr.) on cell viability in Aβ25-35-treated C6 glial cells. Values are means ± SD (n = 3). a - c: Means with the different letters are significantly different (p < 0.05) by Duncan's multiple range test among extract- and fractions-treated groups. *p < 0.05 compared with the control group by Student’s t-test.

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Fig. 2. Effect of Cirsium japonicum var. maackii extract (ext.) and fractions (fr.) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in Aβ25-35-treated C6 glial cells. Time course of change in intensity of ROS fluorescence during 1 h (A) and production of ROS at 1 h (B). Values are means ± SD (n = 3). NS, non-significance. a, b: Means with the different letters are significantly different (p < 0.05) by Duncan's multiple range test among extract- and fractions-treated groups. *p < 0.05 compared with the control group by Student's t-test.

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Fig. 3. Effect of Cirsium japonicum var. maackii extract (ext.) and fractions (fr.) on inflammation-related protein expressions in Aβ25-35-treated C6 glial cells. Protein bands intensity of COX-2, IL-1β, and IL-6 (A) and quantitative analysis of COX-2 (B), IL-1β (C), and IL-6 (D). Values are means ± SD (n = 3). a - g: Means with the different letters are significantly different (p < 0.05) by Duncan's multiple range test.

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Fig. 4. Effect of Cirsium japonicum var. maackii extract (ext.) and fractions (fr.) on apoptosis-related protein expressions in Aβ25-35-treated C6 glial cells. Values are means ± SD (n = 3). a - g: Means with the different letters are significantly different (p < 0.05) by Duncan's multiple range test.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 한국연구재단

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