DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Multivariate statistical analysis of the comparative antioxidant activity of the total phenolics and tannins in the water and ethanol extracts of dried goji berry (Lycium chinense) fruits

  • Kim, Joo-Shin ;
  • Kimm, Haklin Alex
  • Received : 2019.05.21
  • Accepted : 2019.05.30
  • Published : 2019.06.30

Abstract

Antioxidant activity in water and ethanol extracts of dried Lycium chinense fruit, as a result of the total phenolic and tannin content, was measured using a number of chemical and biochemical assays for radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation, with the analysis being extended by applying a bootstrapping statistical method. Previous statistical analyses mostly provided linear correlation and regression analyses between antioxidant activity and increasing concentrations of phenolics and tannins in a concentration-dependent mode. The present study showed that multiple component or multivariate analysis by applying multiple regression analysis or regression planes proved more informative than linear regression analysis of the relationship between the concentration of individual components and antioxidant activity. In this paper, we represented the multivariate analysis of antioxidant activities of both phenolic and tannin contents combined in the water and ethanol extracts, which revealed the hidden observations that were not evident from linear statistical analysis.

Keywords

Lycium chinense;goji berry;antioxidant activity;bootstrapping statistical method;multivariate analysis

SPGHB5_2019_v51n3_227_f0001.png 이미지

Fig. 1. Scatter plots and frequency distribution histograms for total phenolics and tannins from water and ethanol extracts of Lycium chinense fruits.

SPGHB5_2019_v51n3_227_f0002.png 이미지

Fig. 2. Comparison of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activity between water and ethanol extracts.

SPGHB5_2019_v51n3_227_f0003.png 이미지

Fig. 3. Comparison of H2O2-scavenging activity between water and ethanol extracts.

SPGHB5_2019_v51n3_227_f0004.png 이미지

Fig. 4. Comparison of reducing power between water and ethanol extracts.

SPGHB5_2019_v51n3_227_f0005.png 이미지

Fig. 5. Comparison of RBC hemolysis inhibition between water and ethanol extracts.

SPGHB5_2019_v51n3_227_f0006.png 이미지

Fig. 6. Comparison of lipid peroxidation inhibition between water and ethanol extracts.

Table 1. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical-scavenging, reducing power, H2O2-scavenging, hemolysis inhibition and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities in water and ethanol extracts of dried Lycium chinense fruit at different concentrations

SPGHB5_2019_v51n3_227_t0001.png 이미지

References

  1. Robichaud JL. Noble AC. Astrigency and bitterness of selected phenolics in wine. J. Sci. Food Agr. 53: 343-353 (1990)
  2. Said KAM, Amin MAM. Overview on the response surface methodology (RSM) in extraction processes. J. Appl. Sci. Process Eng. 2: 8-17 (2015)
  3. Tang JC, Zhang JN, Wu YT, Li ZK. Effect of the water extract and ethanol extract from traditional Chinese medicines Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. and Rheum palmatum L. on rat liver cytochrome P540 activity. Phytother Res. 20: 1046-1051 (2006) https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1974
  4. Waszkowiak K, Gliszczynska-Swiglo A. Binary ethanol-water solvents affect phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity of flaxseed extracts. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 242: 777-786 (2016)
  5. Yamaguchi T, Takamura H, Matoba T, Terao J. HPLC method for evaluation of the free radical-scavenging activity of foods by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 62: 1201-1204 (1988)
  6. Zheng W, Wang SY. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs. J. Agr. Food Chem. 49: 5165-5170 (2001) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf010697n
  7. Le K, Chiu F, Ng K. Identification and quantification of antioxidants in Fructus lycii. Food Chem. 105: 353-363 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.11.063
  8. Li L, Sun B. Grape and wine polymeric polyphenols: Their importance in enology. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 21: 1-17 (2017)
  9. Lim SN, Cheung PCK, Ooi VEC, Ang PO. Evaluation of antioxidative activity of extracts from a brown seaweed, Sargassum siliquastrum. J. Agr. Food Chem. 50: 3862-3866 (2002) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020096b
  10. Manna C, D'Angelo S, Migliardi V, Loffredi E, Mazzoni O, Morrica P, Galletti P, Zappia V. Protective effect of the phenolic fraction from virgin olive oils against oxidative stress in human cells. J. Agr. Food Chem. 50: 6521-6526 (2002)
  11. Marksimovic Z, Malencic D, Kovacevic N. Polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of Maydis stigma extracts. Bioresour. Technol. 96: 873-877 (2005)
  12. Mercurio MD, Dambergs RG, Cozzolino D, Herderich MJ, Smith PA. Relationship between red wine grades and phenolics; 1. tannin and total phenolics concentrations. J. Agr. Food Chem. 58: 12313-12319 (2010)
  13. Moore DS, McCabe GP, Craig B. Introduction to the practice of statistics. 9th ed. Macmillan, England, (2017)
  14. Ng TB, Liu F, Wang ZT. Antioxidant activity of natural products from plants. Life Sci. 66: 709-723 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3205(99)00642-6
  15. Oyaizu M. Studies on product of browning reaction prepared from glucose amine. Jap. J. Nutr. 44: 307-315 (1986)
  16. Potterat O. Goji (Lycium barbarum and L. chinense): phytochemistry, pharmacology, and safety in the perspective of traditional uses and recent popularity. Planta Med. 76: 7-19 (2010).
  17. Rathee JS, Hassarajani SA, Chattopadhyay S. Antioxidant activity of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis leaf extract. Food Chem. 103: 1350-1357 (2007)
  18. Gulcin I, Oktay M, Kirecci E, Kgfrevioglu OI. Screening of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) seed extracts. Food Chem. 83: 371-382 (2003) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00098-0
  19. Hesterberg TC, Monaghan S, Moore DS, Clipson A, Epstein R. Bootstrap methods and permutation tests. WH Freeman and Company, NY, USA (2005)
  20. Hosu A, Cristea VM, Cimpoiu C. Analysis of total phenolic, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins content in Romanian red wines: Prediction of antioxidant activities and classification of wines using artificial neural networks. Food Chem. 150: 113-118 (2014)
  21. Imeh U, Khokhar S. Distribution of conjugated and free phenols in fruits: antioxidant activity and cultivar variations. J. Agr. Food Chem. 50: 6301-6306 (2002) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020342j
  22. Kassara S, Kennedy JS. Relationship between red wine grade and phenolics; 2. tannin composition and size. J. Agr. Food Chem. 59: 8409-8412 (2011) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf201054p
  23. Kim JS. Radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity of the E vitamer fraction in rice bran. J. Food Sci. 70: C208-C213 (2005)
  24. Kim JS. Comparison of antioxidant properties of water and ethanol extracts obtained from dried boxthorn (Lycium chinensis) fruit. Food Nutr. Sci. 3: 1307-1320 (2012)
  25. Kim JS. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity of the water extract obtained from dried pine needle (Pinus densiflora). Prev. Nutr. Food Sci. 23: 134-143 (2018)
  26. Kim JS, Chung HY. GC-MS analysis of the volatile components in dried boxthorn (Lycium chinenesis) fruit. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol Chem. 52: 516-524 (2009)
  27. Kim MB, Park JS, Lim SB. Antioxidant activity and cell toxicity of pressurized liquid extracts from 20 selected plant species in Jeju, Korea. Food Chem. 122: 546-552 (2010)
  28. Alothman M, Bhat R, Karim AA. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of selected tropical fruits from Malaysia, extracted with different solvents. Food Chem. 115: 785-788 (2009)
  29. Asif M. Chemistry and antioxidant activity of plants containing some phenolic compounds. Chem. Int. 1: 35-52 (2015)
  30. Bas D, Boyaci IH. Modeling and optimization I: Usability of response surface methodology. J. Food Eng. 78: 836-845 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.11.024
  31. Bouchet N, Barrier L, Fauconneau F. Radical scavenging activity and antioxidant properties of tannins from Guiera senegalensis (Combretaceae). Phytother. Res. 12: 159-162 (1998)
  32. Button KS, Ioannidis JP, Mokrysz C, Nosek BA, Flint J, Robinson ES, Munafo MR. Power failure: why small sample size undermines the reliability of neuroscience. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 14: 365-376 (2013) https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn3475
  33. Colquhoun D. An investigation of the false discovery rate and the misinterpretation of p-values. R. Soc. Open Sci. 1: 1-16 (2014)
  34. Dai F, Miao Q, Zhou B, Yang L, Liu ZL. Protective effects of flavonols and their glycosides against free radical-induced oxidative hemolysis of red blood cells. Life Sci. 78: 2488-2493 (2006)
  35. Droge W. Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function. Physiol. Rev. 82: 47-95 (2002)
  36. Efron B, Tibshirani R. An introduction to the bootstrap. Chapman & Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, FL, USA (1993)
  37. Forino M, Tartaglione L, Dell'Aversano C, Ciminiello P. NMR-based identification of the phenolic profile of fruits of Lycium barbarum (goji berries). Isolation and structural determination of a novel N-feruloyl tyramine dimer as the most abundant antioxidant polyphenol of goji berries. Food Chem. 194: 1254-1259 (2016)

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Shinhan University