Non-enzymatic softening of Calendula officinalis L. petals and its anti-skin aging effect for food materialization

식품소재화를 위한 Calendula officinalis L. 꽃잎의 항피부노화 기능성 규명 및 비효소적 연화 기술 연구

  • Lim, Seokwon (School of food and pharmaceutical engineering, food engineering track, Hoseo University) ;
  • Choi, Sungbin (Department of Bioengineering and Nano-Bioengineering, Incheon National University) ;
  • Lee, Pomjoo (Department of Bioengineering and Nano-Bioengineering, Incheon National University) ;
  • Kim, Hyung-sup (School of food and pharmaceutical engineering, food engineering track, Hoseo University) ;
  • Lee, Da-young (School of food and pharmaceutical engineering, food engineering track, Hoseo University) ;
  • Byun, Sanguine (Department of Bioengineering and Nano-Bioengineering, Incheon National University)
  • 임석원 (호서대학교 식품제약공학부 식품공학전공) ;
  • 최성빈 (인천대학교 생명나노바이오공학과) ;
  • 이범주 (인천대학교 생명나노바이오공학과) ;
  • 김형섭 (호서대학교 식품제약공학부 식품공학전공) ;
  • 이다영 (호서대학교 식품제약공학부 식품공학전공) ;
  • 변상균 (인천대학교 생명나노바이오공학과)
  • Received : 2019.05.30
  • Accepted : 2019.06.07
  • Published : 2019.06.30


Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) petals are edible flowers which have been used as a decorative ingredient in dishes or as a medicinal food. In this study, the anti-skin aging potential of calendula petals was investigated. Additionally, the texture was softened by non-enzymatic methods to broaden their application as a food or cosmetic agent. Treatment of calendula prevented ultraviolet-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in skin cells. We investigated whether heating-based processing could soften calendula petals. The results from the punctual test demonstrated significant changes in the hardness of calendula petals depending on the pH, heating temperature, and time. Although there were minor differences among various processing conditions, the largest alteration in hardness was observed when the petals were softened by incubation at $80^{\circ}C$ and pH 2.3 for 120 min. Collectively, these results show that the application of proper processing conditions can soften calendula petals without using enzymes.

SPGHB5_2019_v51n3_243_f0001.png 이미지

Fig. 1. Effect of calendula extract on cell viability of Hs68 human dermal fibroblasts.

SPGHB5_2019_v51n3_243_f0002.png 이미지

Fig. 2. Effect of calendula extract on MMP-1 production.

SPGHB5_2019_v51n3_243_f0003.png 이미지

Fig. 3. Profiles of punctual test.

SPGHB5_2019_v51n3_243_f0004.png 이미지

Fig. 4. Comparison of hardness upon softening conditions.


Supported by : 한국연구재단, 농업기술평가원


  1. Nicolaus C, Junghanns S, Hartmann A, Murillo R, Ganzera M, Merfort I. In vitro studies to evaluate the wound healing properties of Calendula officinalis extracts. J. Ethnopharmacol. 196: 94-103 (2017)
  2. Soehnge H, Ouhtit A, Ananthaswamy HN. Mechanisms of induction of skin cancer by uv radiation. Front. Biosci. 2: 538-551 (1997)
  3. Re TA, Mooney D, Antignac E, Dufour E, Bark I, Srinivasan V, Nohynek G. Application of the threshold of toxicological concern approach for the safety evaluation of calendula flower (Calendula officinalis) petals and extracts used in cosmetic and personal care products. Food Chem. Toxicol. 47: 1246-1254 (2009)
  4. Reuter J, Merfort I, Seelinger G, Wolfle U, Schempp CM. Botanicals in dermatology and skin health. Botanical Medicine 3: 33-65 (2009)
  5. Stamenkovic I. Extracellular matrix remodelling: The role of matrix metalloproteinases. J. Pathol. 200: 448-464 (2003)
  6. Brennan M, Bhatti H, Nerusu KC. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 is the major collagenolytic enzyme responsible for collagen damage in UV-irradiated human skin. Photochem. Photobiol. 78: 43-48 (2003)<0043:MMITMC>2.0.CO;2
  7. Brown DJ, Dattner AM. Phytotherapeutic approaches to common dermatologic conditions. Arch. Dermatol. 134: 1401-1404 (1998)
  8. Chung JH. Photoaging in Asians. Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 19: 109-121 (2003)
  9. Eom SH, Chun YG, Park CE, Kim BK, Lee SH, Park DJ. Application of freeze-thaw enzyme impregnation to produce softened root vegetable foods for elderly consumers. J. Texture Stud. 49: 404-414 (2016)
  10. Fisher GJ, Datta SC, Talwar HS. Molecular basis of sun-induced premature skin ageing and retinoid antagonism. Nature. 379: 335-339 (1996)
  11. Fisher GJ, Kang S, Varani J. Mechanisms of photoaging and chronological skin aging. Arch. Derm. 138: 1462-1470 (2002)
  12. Gilchrest BA, Park HY, Eller MS. Mechanisms of ultraviolet light-induced pigmentation. Photochem. Photobiol. 63: 1-10 (1996)
  13. Goihman-Yahr M. Skin aging and photoaging: an outlook. Clin. Dermatol. 14: 153-160 (1996)
  14. Jimenez-Medina E, Garcia-Lora A, Paco L, Algarra I, Collado A, Garrido F. A new extract of the plant Calendula officinalis produces a dual in vitro effect: Cytotoxic anti-tumor activity and lymphocyte activation. BMC Cancer 6: 119 (2006)
  15. Katalinic V, Milos M, Kulisic T, Jukic M. Screening of 70 medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant capacity and total phenols. Food Chem. 94: 550-557 (2006)
  16. Nicolaou A, Pilkington SM, Rhodes LE. Ultraviolet-radiation induced skin inflammation: dissecting the role of bioactive lipids. Chem. Phys. Lipids 164:535-543 (2011)
  17. Alexandre JTM, Sousa LHT, Lisboa MRP, Furlaneto FAC, do Val DR, Marques M, Vasconcelos HC, de Melo IM, Leitao R, Castro Brito GA, Goes P. Anti-inflammatory and antiresorptive effects of Calendula officinalis on inflammatory bone loss in rats. Clin. Oral Investig. 22: 2175-2185 (2018)
  18. Beissert S, Schwarz T. Mechanisms involved in ultraviolet light-induced immunosuppression. J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 4: 61-64 (1999)