Comparison of the major compounds and antimicrobial activities of Koara garlic cultivated in different regions

산지별 고아라 마늘의 주요 성분과 항균활성 비교

  • Kim, Ju-Sung (Majors in Plant Resource and Environment, College of Applied Life Sciences, SARI, Jeju National University) ;
  • Ra, Jong Hwan (Majors in Plant Resource and Environment, College of Applied Life Sciences, SARI, Jeju National University)
  • 김주성 (제주대학교 생명자원과학대학 친환경연구소) ;
  • 라종환 (제주대학교 생명자원과학대학 친환경연구소)
  • Received : 2019.03.22
  • Accepted : 2019.04.29
  • Published : 2019.06.30


Although the chemical compositions and biological characteristics of some species of garlic have been investigated, data on Koara garlic are currently lacking. In order to investigate the major compounds and antimicrobial activity of Koara garlic, which was registered as a cultivar in 2012, it was cultivated in Seogwipo, Damyang, and Namhae. Analysis of the chemical composition of the cultivated garlic showed that the alliin, pyruvate contents, and antimicrobial activity were high in garlic grown in Seogwipo ($9.44{\pm}0.28mg/g$, $127.52{\pm}5.50{\mu}M/g$, and 0.31-1.25%, respectively). The total phenol content and reducing sugar contents were abundant in garlic grown in Namhae ($82.23{\pm}0.00g\;GAE/100g$ and $28.59{\pm}0.54mg\;GE/g$, respectively), and the total flavonoid content was high in garlic grown in Damyang ($22.41{\pm}0.77g\;QE/100g$). Although garlics grown in different cultivation areas had different chemical compositions, major compound contents and biological activities of Koara garlic were similar to those of other garlic varieties reported so far. These data will be useful for local farmers, distributors, and consumers.

Table 1. Total mineral concentration of Koara garlic grown in Seogwipo, Namhae, and Damyang

SPGHB5_2019_v51n3_258_t0001.png 이미지

Table 2. Alliin, allicin, and total pyruvate concentrations of Koara garlic grown in Seogwipo, Namhae, and Damyang

SPGHB5_2019_v51n3_258_t0002.png 이미지

Table 4. Antimicrobial activity of Koara garlic grown in Seogwipo, Namhae, and Damyang

SPGHB5_2019_v51n3_258_t0003.png 이미지

Table 3. Total phenol, total flavonoid, and total glucose contents of Koara garlic grown in Seogwipo, Namhae, and Damyang

SPGHB5_2019_v51n3_258_t0004.png 이미지


  1. Stool A, Seebeck E. Allium compounds. I. Alliine, the true mother compound of garlic oil. Helv. Chim. Acta. 31: 189-210 (1948)
  2. Miron T, Shin I, Feigenblat G, Weiner L, Mirelman D, Wilchek M, Rabinkov A. A spectrophotometric assay for allicin, alliin, and alliinase (alliin lyase) with a chromogenic thiol: reaction of 4-mercaptopyridine with thiosulfinates. Anal. Biochem. 307: 76-83 (2002)
  3. Moon SH, Awraris DA, Ko EY, Park SW. Comparison of flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) based on harvest time. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 33: 283-291 (2015)
  4. Oh HL, Kim NY, Sohn CW, Ryu BR, Yoon JH, Kim MR. Analyses of pungency-related factors of field and rice paddy garlic. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 41: 655-660 (2012)
  5. Olech Z, Zaborska W. A spectrophotometric assay for total garlic thiosulfinates content. Kinetic aspects of reaction with chromogenic thiols. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 62: 23-29 (2012)
  6. Rural Development Administration (RDA). Koara. Avaliable from: and Accessed Mar. 22, 2019.
  7. Sanders JR, Adams TM. The effects of pH and soil type on concentrations of zinc, copper and nickel extracted by calcium chloride from sewage sludge-treated soils. Environ. Pollut. 43: 219-228 (1987)
  8. Schwimmer S, Weston WJ. Onion flavor and odor, enzymatic development of pyruvic acid in onion as a measure of pungency. J. Agric. Food Chem. 9: 301-304 (1961)
  9. Shin JH, Choi DJ, Lee SJ, Cha JY, Kim JG, Sung NJ. Changes of physicochemical components and antioxidant activity of garlic during its processing. J. Life Sci. 18: 1123-1131 (2008)
  10. Shin JH, Ju JC, Kwen OC, Yang SM, Lee SJ, Sung NJ. Physicochemical and physiological activities of garlic from different area. Korean J. Food Nutr. 17: 237-245 (2004)
  11. Small LD, Bailey JH, Cavallito CJ. Alkylthiosulfinates. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 69: 1710-1713 (1947)
  12. Jeong JY, Woo KS, Hwang IG, Yoon HS, Lee YR, Jeong HS. Effects of heat treatment and antioxidant activity of aroma on garlic harvested in different cultivation areas. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 36: 1637-1642 (2007)
  13. Kim CB, Kim CY, Park M, Lee DH, Choi J. Effect of chemical properties of cultivation soils on the plant growth and the quality of garlic. Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 33: 333-339 (2000)
  14. Kim MB, Oh YJ, Lim SB. Physicochemical characteristics of garlic from Daejeong Jeju and major cultivation areas in Korea. Korean J. Culin. Res. 15: 59-66 (2009)
  15. Kim JS, Ra JH. Comparison of chemical properties of soil and main component of Southern ecotype garlic cultivar cultivated in the volcanic ash soil or non-volcanic ash soil of Jeju island. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 34: 549-556 (2016)
  16. Kim JS, Ra JH, Hyun HN. Comparison of biocheomical composition and antimicrobial activity of southern type garlic grown in the eastern and western region of Jeju. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 33: 763-771 (2015a)
  17. Kim JS, Ra JH, Hyun HN. Correlations between soil environment and bioactive constituents of Namdo garlic harvested in the nonvolcanic ash soil distributed western Jeju. Korean J. Med. Crop Sci. 23: 125-131 (2015b)
  18. Koch HP, Lawson LD. Garlic: The science and therapeutic application of Allium sativum L. and related species. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, USA. pp. 329 (1996)
  19. Lawson LD. Garlic: A review of its medicinal effects and indicated active compounds. In: Phytomedicines of Europe: their chemistry and biological activity. Lawson LD, Bauer R (eds.). American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 176-209 (1998)
  20. Chang KM, Lee MS. A study on mineral contents of the underground vegetables produced in Korea harvested in different times. Korean J. Soc. Food Sci. 15: 545-549 (1999)
  21. Cho BY, Lee JH, Ra MJ, Kim SY, Kang IJ, Han KC, Lee OH. Analysis of pectolinarin content and antioxidant activity in Cirsium setidens Nakai by cultivars. J. Food Hyg. Saf. 31: 210-215 (2016)
  22. Choi EY, Kim EH, Lee JB, Kim HS, Kim MS, Lee SG, Kim SH, Lee U, Kim DK, Lee JT. Bioactive component analysis, antioxidant activity, and cytotoxicity on cancer cells on Rubus crataegifolius clones by region. J. Korean For. Soc. 105: 193-201 (2016)
  23. Choi DJ, Lee SJ, Kang MJ, Cho HS, Sung NJ, Shin JH. Physicochemical characteristics of black garlic (Allium sativum L.). J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 37: 465-471 (2008)
  24. Chung JY, Kim CS. Antioxidant activities of domestic garlic (Allium sativum L.) stems from different areas. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 37: 972-978 (2008)
  25. Feldberg RS, Chang SC, Kotik AN, Nadler M, Neuwirth Z, Sundstrom DC, Thompson NH. In vitro mechanism of inhibition of bacterial cell growth by allicin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32: 1763-1768 (1988)
  26. Hong GH, Lee SK, Moon W. Alliin and fructan contents in garlics, by cultivars and cultivating areas. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 38: 483-488 (1997)
  27. Hyun SH, Kim MB, Lim SB. Physiological activities of garlic extracts from Daejeong Jeju and major cultivating areas in Korea. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 37: 1542-1547 (2008)
  28. Jeong CH, Bae YI, Lee JH, Roh JG, Shin CS, Choi JS, Shim KH. Chemical components and antimicrobial activity of garlics from different cultivated area. J. Agric. Life Sci. 43: 51-59 (2009)
  29. Benkeblia N. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil extracts of various onions (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum). LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 37: 263-268 (2004)
  30. Block E. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium-Implications for the organic chemistry of sulfur. Angew. Chem. 31: 1135-1178 (1992)