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Anti-Fatigue Properties of Cultivated Wild Ginseng Distilled Extract and Its Active Component Panaxydol in Rats

  • Shin, Il-Soo ;
  • Kim, Do-Hee ;
  • Jang, Eun Young ;
  • Kim, Hee Young ;
  • Yoo, Hwa-Seung
  • Received : 2019.04.16
  • Accepted : 2019.05.20
  • Published : 2019.06.28

Abstract

Objectives: Cultivated wild ginseng (cWG), called SanYangSanSam, has been used clinically in patients with chronic fatigue in Korea. Little is known about effects of the ginseng distilled (volatile) components produced during evaporizaiton. Recently, we first identified one major component from cWG distilled extract, panaxydol, by using mass spectrometry. However, functional properties of cWG distilled extract and panaxydol remains elusive. Therefore, the present study evaluated the effect of cWG distilled extract or panaxydol on exercise-induced fatigue in rats. Methods: Fatigue was induced by forced swimming and the immobility time was analyzed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals received intraperitoneally either vehicle, cWG distilled extract, or panaxydol 10 min prior to beginning of the forced swimming test (FST) once daily for 5 days. After the FST on day 5, we also analyzed fatigue-related biochemical levels including blood urea nitrogen (BUN), lactate acid (LAC), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum and levels of glycogen in liver and soleus muscle. Results: The forced swimming time in cWG distilled extract (0.6 mL/kg)-treated group was significantly longer than that of control group on day 4 and 5. Panaxydol (0.1 and 0.25 mg/kg)-treated groups showed significantly enhanced performance in the forced swimming, compared to control. In addition, a significant decrease in serum LDH level was found in panaxydol-treated group, while there were no alternations in levels of serum BUN and LAC and glycogen in liver or soleus muscle. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated cWG distilled extract and its active component panaxydol have a function of anti-fatigue.

Keywords

ginseng;fatigue;force swimming test;lactate dehydrogenase;panaxydol

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Figure 1 Effect of cultivated wild ginseng (cWG) distilled extract on the forced swimming time in rats. A: A rotary evaporator used for collection of cWG distilled extract. B: rats were pretreated with saline or cWG distilled extract (0.6 mL/kg, i.p.) once daily 10 min prior to the forced swimming test for 5 days. Data were presented as mean ± SEM (n = 6 per group). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 vs. saline

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Figure 1 Effect of cultivated wild ginseng (cWG) distilled extract on the forced swimming time in rats. A: A rotary evaporator used for collection of cWG distilled extract. B: rats were pretreated with saline or cWG distilled extract (0.6 mL/kg, i.p.) once daily 10 min prior to the forced swimming test for 5 days. Data were presented as mean ± SEM (n = 6 per group). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 vs. saline

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Figure 2 Effect of cultivated wild ginseng (cWG) distilled extract on serum level of glycogen in liver (A) and soleus muscle (B) after forced swimming test. Rats were treated with saline or cWG distilled extract (0.6 mL/kg, i.p.) for 5 days. A: glycogen content in liver after the forced swimming. B: glycogen content in soleus muscle after the forced swimming. Data were presented as mean ± SEM (n = 6 per group).

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Figure 2 Effect of cultivated wild ginseng (cWG) distilled extract on serum level of glycogen in liver (A) and soleus muscle (B) after forced swimming test. Rats were treated with saline or cWG distilled extract (0.6 mL/kg, i.p.) for 5 days. A: glycogen content in liver after the forced swimming. B: glycogen content in soleus muscle after the forced swimming. Data were presented as mean ± SEM (n = 6 per group).

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Figure 3 Effect of panaxydol on the forced swimming time in rats. A: chemical structure of panaxydol. B: effect of panaxydol on the forced swimming test. Animals were given vehicle or panaxydol (0.1 or 0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) once a day 10 min prior to the forced swimming test. Data were presented as mean ± SEM (n = 5 per group). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 vs. saline.

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Figure 3 Effect of panaxydol on the forced swimming time in rats. A: chemical structure of panaxydol. B: effect of panaxydol on the forced swimming test. Animals were given vehicle or panaxydol (0.1 or 0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) once a day 10 min prior to the forced swimming test. Data were presented as mean ± SEM (n = 5 per group). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 vs. saline.

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Figure 4 Effect of panaxydol on serum level of fatigue-related biomarkers after forced swimming test. Rats were pretreated with vehicle or panaxydol (0.1 or 0.25 mg/ kg, i.p.) 10 min prior to the forced swimming test. A: BUN, B: LAC, C: LDH after the forced swimming. Data were presented as mean ± SEM (n = 5 per group). **P < 0.01 vs. vehicle.

DHOCBS_2019_v22n2_68_f0006.png 이미지

Figure 4 Effect of panaxydol on serum level of fatigue-related biomarkers after forced swimming test. Rats were pretreated with vehicle or panaxydol (0.1 or 0.25 mg/ kg, i.p.) 10 min prior to the forced swimming test. A: BUN, B: LAC, C: LDH after the forced swimming. Data were presented as mean ± SEM (n = 5 per group). **P < 0.01 vs. vehicle.

DHOCBS_2019_v22n2_68_f0007.png 이미지

Figure 5 Effect of panaxydol on glycogen content in liver and soleus muscle of rats. A: glycogen content in liver after the forced swimming. B: glycogen content in soleus muscle after the forced swimming. Data were presented as mean ± SEM (n = 5 per group).

DHOCBS_2019_v22n2_68_f0007.png 이미지

Figure 5 Effect of panaxydol on glycogen content in liver and soleus muscle of rats. A: glycogen content in liver after the forced swimming. B: glycogen content in soleus muscle after the forced swimming. Data were presented as mean ± SEM (n = 5 per group).

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Acknowledgement

Supported by : Daejeon University