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Crocin Improves Oxidative Stress by Potentiating Intrinsic Anti-Oxidant Defense Systems in Pancreatic Cells During Uncontrolled Hyperglycemia

  • Yaribeygi, Habib (Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Noroozadeh, Ali (Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Mohammadi, Mohammad Taghi (Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Johnston, Thomas P. (Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City) ;
  • Sahebkar, Amirhossein (Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences)
  • Received : 2017.11.14
  • Accepted : 2019.05.09
  • Published : 2019.06.28

Abstract

Introduction: Oxidative stress (OS) during uncontrolled hyperglycemia has a pivotal role in pancreatic dysfunction. Our study aimed to demonstrate that crocin can potentiate anti-oxidant defense systems of pancreatic cells to improve oxidative stress. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups: a normal group, a normal-treated group, a diabetic group and a diabetic-treated group (n = 6 rats per group). Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg/IV). The treated groups received crocin daily for 8 weeks (40 mg/kg/IP). At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and pancreas tissue was obtained. Subsequently, the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrate and glutathione as well as the enzymatic activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in all animals. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA with appropriate post hoc testing and a probability value of P < 0.05 was considered to represent a statistically significant difference in mean values. Results: Uncontrolled hyperglycemia weakened the anti-oxidant system by decreasing SOD and catalase enzyme activity in pancreatic tissues and induced OS by increasing the MDA content in diabetic non-treated animals. Crocin potentiated the anti-oxidant defense system by increasing the activity of both SOD and catalase, and improved OS by diminishing MDA production in pancreatic cells of rats contained in the diabetic-treated group. Conclusion: Based on our results, it is concluded that uncontrolled hyperglycemia can weaken the anti-oxidant defense system and cause the development of OS. Also, crocin can improve OS in pancreatic cells by potentiating the anti-oxidant defense system.

Keywords

oxidative stress;pancreas;crocin;MDA

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Figure 1 Representative changes of nitrate content (nmol/mL) in normal (N), normal + crocin (N + C), diabetic (D) and diabetic + crocin (D + C) groups. All values are presented as Mean ± SEM.

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Figure 1 Representative changes of nitrate content (nmol/mL) in normal (N), normal + crocin (N + C), diabetic (D) and diabetic + crocin (D + C) groups. All values are presented as Mean ± SEM.

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Figure 2 shows representative changes of SOD enzyme activity in units/mL in all groups. The mean value of the SOD activity in the normal group was 0.66 ± 0.09 units/mL. Crocin increased the SOD activity significantly to 0.9 ± 0.09 units/mL in normal-treated rats. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia decreased the activity of SOD to 0.43 ± 0.11 units/mL (P < 0.007). Also, treatment with crocin in diabetic animals significantly (P < 0.02) increased the activity of SOD to 0.67 ± 0.05 nmol/mL.

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Figure 2 shows representative changes of SOD enzyme activity in units/mL in all groups. The mean value of the SOD activity in the normal group was 0.66 ± 0.09 units/mL. Crocin increased the SOD activity significantly to 0.9 ± 0.09 units/mL in normal-treated rats. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia decreased the activity of SOD to 0.43 ± 0.11 units/mL (P < 0.007). Also, treatment with crocin in diabetic animals significantly (P < 0.02) increased the activity of SOD to 0.67 ± 0.05 nmol/mL.

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Figure 4 Representative changes of catalase activity (Units/mL) in normal (N), normal + crocin (N + C), diabetic (D) and diabetic + crocin (D + C) groups. All values are presented as Mean ± SEM.

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Figure 4 Representative changes of catalase activity (Units/mL) in normal (N), normal + crocin (N + C), diabetic (D) and diabetic + crocin (D + C) groups. All values are presented as Mean ± SEM.

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Figure 5 Representative changes of MDA content (nmol/mL) in normal (N), normal + crocin (N + C), diabetic (D) and diabetic + crocin (D + C) groups. All values are presented as Mean ± SEM.

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Figure 5 Representative changes of MDA content (nmol/mL) in normal (N), normal + crocin (N + C), diabetic (D) and diabetic + crocin (D + C) groups. All values are presented as Mean ± SEM.

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Figure 3 Representative changes of glutathione content (nmol/mL) in normal (N), normal + crocin (N + C), diabetic (D) and diabetic + crocin (D + C) groups. All values are presented as Mean ± SEM.

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Figure 3 Representative changes of glutathione content (nmol/mL) in normal (N), normal + crocin (N + C), diabetic (D) and diabetic + crocin (D + C) groups. All values are presented as Mean ± SEM.

Table 1 Mean blood glucose values in experimented groups

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Table 1 Mean blood glucose values in experimented groups

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