Performance in subtests of Intelligence Scale Based on HOME environment Stimuli and Age

가정환경 특성과 연령에 따른 지능검사 소검사에서의 수행

  • Kim, Yeonsoo (Department of Counseling Psychology, Jeonju University)
  • 김연수 (전주대학교 상담심리학과)
  • Received : 2019.04.08
  • Accepted : 2019.06.20
  • Published : 2019.06.28


The purpose of this study was to inquire into performance of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children based on HOME environment stimuli and age. For the purpose of this, a trained tester carried out K-WISC-IV oriented to 128 children aged 6-16, and this study conducted HOME to mothers. Regarding participants' full Scale IQ and 4 index score(Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, Processing Speed) and HOME, they were analyzed by age group of two: a group of children aged 6-10 and another group of children aged 11-16. According to the analysis results, both age groups showed a significant positive correlation between Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension Index, and HOME environment stimuli. The results of this study were discussed and proposed the necessity of studies in relation to performance of diverse subtests in accordance with amendment of future intelligence scales.


Intelligence;Cognitive development;Home environmental stimuli;Middle childhood;Early Adolescent

Table 1. Demographic Characteristics of Respondents

OHHGBW_2019_v10n6_251_t0001.png 이미지

Table 2. Correlation between main variables

OHHGBW_2019_v10n6_251_t0002.png 이미지

Table 3. Regression analysis(age group 6-10)

OHHGBW_2019_v10n6_251_t0003.png 이미지

Table 4. Regression analysis(age group 11-16)

OHHGBW_2019_v10n6_251_t0004.png 이미지


  1. R. H. Bradley. (2015). Constructing and adapting causal and formative measures of family settings: The HOME Inventory as illustration. Journal of family theory & review, 7(4), 381-414.
  2. S. C. Kim & K. J. Kwak. (2013). The effects of HOME environments and children development at 3 years of age on the intelligence development at 7 years of age. The Korean Journal of Developmental Psychology, 26(4), 41-57.
  3. S. C. Kim & K. J. Kwak. (2015). Exploring the Effects on Intelligence Development at Seven Years of Age: On the Home Environments and Child Developemnt at Three Years. The Korean Journal of the Human Development, 22(2), 75-91.
  4. Y. Anders, H. G. Rossbach, S. Weinert, S. Ebert, S. Kuger, S. Lehrl, & J. von Maurice. (2012). Home and preschool learning environments and their relations to the development of early numeracy skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27(2), 231-244.
  5. R. H. Bradley, & R. F. Corwyn. (2007). Externalizing problems in fifth grade: Relations with productive activity, maternal sensitivity, and harsh parenting from infancy through middle childhood. Developmental Psychology, 43(6), 1390-1401.
  6. R. H. Bradley, & R. F. Corwyn. (2013). From parent to child to parent: Paths in and out of problem behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41(4), 515-529.
  7. J. R. Smith, J. Brooks-Gunn, & P. K. Klebanov. (1997). Consequences of living in poverty for young children's cognitive and verbal ability and early school achievement. Consequences of growing up poor, 132, 189.
  8. B. M. Caldwell, & R. H. Bradley. (2003). Administration manual: Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Inventory. Retrieved from
  9. K. J. Kwak, J. M. Kim, & J. M. Yoo. (2007). The elation of Poverty, Parent's variances, Home environment and child development on the 3- year-old children. The Korean Journal of Developmental Psychology, 20(3), 83-98.
  10. M. Farah, L. Betancourt, D. Shera, J. Savage, J. Giannetta, N. L. Brodsky, E. K. Malmud, & H. Hurt. (2008). Environmental stimulation, parental nurturance and cognitive development in humans. Developmental Science, 11(5), 793-801.
  11. S. Andrade, D. Santos, A. Bastos, M. Pedromonico, N. Almeida-Filho, & J. Barreto, (2005). Family environment and child's cognitive development: An epidemiological approach. Review Saude Publica, 39(4), 606-611.
  12. J. Belsky, D. Vandell, M. Burchinal, A. Clarke-Stewart, K. McCartney, M. Owen, & NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2007). Are there long-term effects of early child care? Child Development, 78(2), 681-701.
  13. R. H. Bradley, B. M. Caldwell, & S. L. Rock (1988). Home environment and school performance: A tenyear follow-up and examination of three models of environmental action. Child Development, 59(4), 852-867.
  14. M. A. Nievar, & T. Luster, (2006). Developmental processes in African American families: An application of McLoyd's theoretical model. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68(2), 320-331.
  15. F. Tofail, J. Hamadani, A. Ahmed, F. Mehrin, M. Hakim, & S. Huda, S. (2012). The mental development and behavior of low-birth-weight Bangladeshi infants from an urban low-income community. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66(2), 237-243.
  16. S. W. Oh, M. Y. Oh, & S. H. Kim. (2011). Sex Differences on the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Journal of Rehabilitation Psychology, 18(3), 361-373.
  17. K. J. Kwak, S. W. Oh, C. T. Kim (2011). Korean-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition. Seoul: Inpsyt.
  18. D. Wechsler. (2003). Wechsler intelligence scale for children-Fourth Edition(WISC-IV). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
  19. R. H. Bradley, A. Pennar, A. Fuligni, L. Whiteside-Mansell (2019). Assessing the home environment during midand late-adolescence. Applied Developmental Science, 23(1), 22-40.
  20. A. S. Kaufman, & E. O. Lichtenberger (1999). Essentials of WAIS-III Assessment. NY: John Wiley & Sons.
  21. Y. S. Kim & K. J. Kwak (2011). Relationship between Unrealistically Optimistic Beliefs in Early Childhood and Intelligence in Middle Childhood. The Korean Journal of Developmental Psychology, 24(1), 79-92.
  22. T. Czeschlik. (1993). General intelligence, temperament, and the Matching Familiar Figures Test. European Journal of Personality, 7(5), 379-386.
  23. M. Kaczmarek, J. Strelau, & A. Miklewska. (2010). The relationship between intelligence and Pavlovian temperament traits: The role of gender and level of intelligence. In Handbook of individual differences in cognition: Attention, memory, and executive control (pp. 51-61). New York: Springer.