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Genetic Diversity Studies and Identification of Molecular and Biochemical Markers Associated with Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Cultivated Faba Bean (Vicia faba)

  • Mahmoud, Amer F. (Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University) ;
  • El-Fatah, Bahaa E.S. Abd (Department of Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University)

Abstract

Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the most important legume crops in Egypt. However, production of faba bean is affected by several diseases including fungal diseases. Fusarium wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. was shown to be the most common wilt disease of faba bean in Assiut Governorate. Evaluation of 16 faba bean genotypes for the resistance to Fusarium wilt was carried out under greenhouse conditions. Three molecular marker systems (inter-simple sequence repeat [ISSR], sequence related amplified polymorphism [SRAP], and simple sequence repeat [SSR]) and a biochemical marker (protein profiles) were used to study the genetic diversity and detect molecular and biochemical markers associated with Fusarium wilt resistance in the tested genotypes. The results showed that certain genotypes of faba bean were resistant to Fusarium wilt, while most of the genotypes were highly susceptible. The percentage of disease severity ranged from 32.83% in Assiut-215 to 64.17% in Misr-3. The genotypes Assiut-215, Roomy-3, Marut-2, and Giza2 were the most resistant, and the genotypes Misr-3, Misr-1, Assiut-143, Giza-40, and Roomy-80 performed as highly susceptible. The genotypes Assiut-215 and Roomy-3 were considered as promising sources of the resistance to Fusarium wilt. SRAP markers showed higher polymorphism (82.53%) compared with SSR (76.85%), ISSR markers (62.24%), and protein profile (31.82%). Specific molecular and biochemical markers associated with Fusarium wilt resistance were identified. The dendrogram based on combined data of molecular and biochemical markers grouped the 16 faba bean genotypes into three clusters. Cluster I included resistant genotypes, cluster II comprised all moderate genotypes and cluster III contained highly susceptible genotypes.