- Volume 46 Issue 1
DOI QR Code
Ecological Risk Assessment of Lead and Arsenic by Environmental Media
납과 비소에 대한 환경매체별 생태위해성평가
- Lee, Byeongwoo (Risk Assessment Division, Environmental Health Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
- Lee, Byoungcheun (Risk Assessment Division, Environmental Health Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
- Kim, Pilje (Risk Assessment Division, Environmental Health Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
- Yoon, Hyojung (Risk Assessment Division, Environmental Health Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research)
- 이병우 (국립환경과학원 환경건강연구부 위해성평가연구과) ;
- 이병천 (국립환경과학원 환경건강연구부 위해성평가연구과) ;
- 김필제 (국립환경과학원 환경건강연구부 위해성평가연구과) ;
- 윤효정 (국립환경과학원 환경건강연구부 위해성평가연구과)
- Received : 2019.11.17
- Accepted : 2019.12.13
- Published : 2020.02.29
Objectives: This study intends to evaluate the ecological risk of lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and their compounds according to the 2010 action plan on inventory and management for national priority chemicals and provide calculations of risks to the environment. By doing so, we aim to inform risk management measures for the target chemicals. Methods: We conducted species sensitivity distribution (SSD) analysis using the collected ecotoxicity data and obtained predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) for the in-water environment using a hazardous concentration of 5% (HC5) protective of most species (95%) in the environment. Based on the calculated PNECs for aquatic organisms, PNEC values for soil and sediment were calculated using the partition coefficient. We also calculated predicted exposure concentration (PEC) from nation-wide environmental monitoring data and then the hazard quotient (HQ) was calculated using PNEC for environmental media. Results: Ecological toxicity data was categorized into five groups and five species for Pb and four groups and four species for As. Based on the HC5 values from SSD analysis, the PNEC value for aquatic organisms was calculated as 0.40 ㎍/L for Pb and 0.13 ㎍/L for As. PNEC values for soil and sediment calculated using a partition coefficient were 77.36 and 350.50 mg/kg for Pb and 24.20 and 112.75 mg/kg for As. The analysis of national environmental monitoring data showed that PEC values in water were 0.284 ㎍/L for Pb and 0.024 ㎍/L for As, while those in soil and sediment were respectively 45.9 and 44 mg/kg for Pb, and 11.40 and 19.80 mg/kg for As. Conclusions: HQs of Pb and As were 0.70 and 0.18 in water, while those in soil and sediment were 0.59 and 0.13 for Pb and 0.47 and 0.18 for As. With HQs <1 of lead and arsenic in the environment, their ecological risk levels are found to be low.
Grant : 생활공감 유해물질의 매체통합 위해성평가
Supported by : 국립환경과학원
- Kong IC, Kwon HY, Ko KS. Bioassessment and Comparison of Toxicity of Arsenics based on the Results of Various Bioassays. J Korean Soc Environ Eng. 2010; 32(8): 791-805.
- Park JG. Environment and Health: An Overview of Current Trends at WHO and OECD. J Environ Health Sci. 2013; 39(4): 299-311.
- Lee BW, Lee BC, Yoon HJ, Park KW, Kim PJ. Ecological Risk Assessment for Cadmium in Environmental Media. J Environ Health Sci. 2018; 44(6): 548-555.
- Shon JG, Lee CM. The Risk Assessment of Hazard Chemicals in Environment. J Korean Soc Environ Eng. 2007; 29(5): 477-488.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Lead and Compounds (Inorganic) (CASRN7439-92-1). IRIS. 2015. Available: http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0277.htm.
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Inorganic and Organic Lead Compounds. 2006; 87.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Risk assessment guidance for superfund volume: Human health evaluation manual (Part A). 2004.
- Jung JW, Nam KP. Analysis on the Risk-Based Screening Levels Determined by Various Risk Assessment Tools (III): Proposed Methodology for Lead Risk Assessment in Korea. J Soil Groundw Environ. 2015; 20(6): 1-7. https://doi.org/10.7857/JSGE.2015.20.6.001
- Sim KT, KimDH, Lee JW, Lee CH, Park SY, Seok KS et al. Exposure and Risk Assessments of Multimedia of Arsenic in the Environment. J Environ Impact Assess. 2019; 28(2): 152-168. https://doi.org/10.14249/EIA.2019.28.2.152
- National Chemical Information System (NCIS). Available: http://www.ncis.go.kr/main.do.CAS 7440-43-9 [accessed 2 October 2019].
- ECOTOXknowledgebase. Available: http://archive.epa.gov/med/med_archive_03/web/html/ecotox.html [accessed 14 September 2018].
- Lee WM, Kim SW, Jeong SW, An YJ. Comparative study of Ecological Risk Assessment: Deriving Soil Ecological Criteria. J Soil Groundw Environ. 2012; 17(5): 1-9. https://doi.org/10.7857/JSGE.2012.17.5.001
- National Institute of Environmental Research. Risk Assessment Guidebook. 2011: 1-387.
- European Commission. Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment. Commission Directive93/67/EEC on Risk Assessment for new notifide substance. Commission Regulation (EC) No 1488/94 on Risk Assessment for existing substance. Directive 98/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the placing of biocidal products on the market. Part II. 2003: 1-328.
- Water Environment Information System. Available: http://www.water.nier.go.kr/waterData/general-Search.do?menuldx=3_2_1&siteTypeCd=A [accessed 10 September 2018].
- Water Environment Information System. Available: http://www.water.nier.go.kr/waterData/general-Search.do?menuldx=3_2_1&siteTypeCd=B [accessed 10 September 2018].
- Water Environment Information System. Available: http://www.water.nier.go.kr/waterData/generalSearch.do?menuldx=3_2_1&siteTypeCd=E [accessed 10 September 2018].
- Water Environment Information System. Available: http://www.water.nier.go.kr/waterData/generalSearch.do?menuldx=3_2_1&siteTypeCd=F [accessed 10 September 2018].
- Water Environment Information System. Available: http://www.water.nier.go.kr/waterData/generalSearch.do?menuldx=3_2_1&siteTypeCd=R [accessed 10 September 2018].
- Butler R, Effect of Heavy Metals Found in Flue Gas on Growth and Lipid Accumulation for Green Algae Scenedesmus obliquus. Master of science. Thesis. Utah State University. Logan. 2011: 1-83.
- Rice TM, Blackstone BJ, Nixdorf WL, Taylor DH. Exposure to lead induced to hypoxia-like responses in bullfrog larvae (Rana catesbeiana). Environ Toxicol Chem. 1999; 18: 2283-2288.
- Kay SH, Haller WT, Ganard LA. Effects of heavy metals on water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes. Aquat Toxicol. 1984; 5: 117-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/0166-445X(84)90003-1
- Besser JM, Brumbaugh WG, Brunson EL, Ingersoll CG. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Lead in Water and Diet to the Amphipod Hyalella azteca. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2005; 24(7): 1807-1815. https://doi.org/10.1897/04-480R.1
- Erickson RJ, Mount DR, Highland TL, Hockett JR, Leonard EN, Mattson VR, Dawson TD, Lott KG. Effects of Copper, Cadmium, Lead, and Arsenic in a Live Diet on Juvenile Fish Growth. Can J Fish Aquat Sci. 2010; 67: 1816-1826. https://doi.org/10.1139/F10-098
- Chen F, Chen W, Dai S, Toxicities of four arsenic species to Scenedesmus obliguus and influence of phosphate on inorganic arsenic toxicities. J Toxicol Environ Chem. 1994; 41: 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1080/02772249409357953
- Pawlik-Skowronska B, Pirszel J, Kalinowska R,Skowronski T. Arsenic Availability, Toxicity and Direct Role of GSH and Phytochelatins in As Detoxification in the Green Alga Stichococcus bacillaris. Aquat Toxicol. 2004; 70(3): 201-212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2004.09.003
- Klusek CS, Heit M, Hodgkiss S. Trace Element Concentrations in the Soft Tissue of Transplanted Freshwater Mussels Near a Coal-Fired Power Plant. In: R.F. Keefer and K.S. Sajwan (Eds.), Trace Elements in Coal and Coal Combustion Residues, Boca Raton. 1993: 59-95.
- Jenner HA, Janssen-Mommen JPM. Duckweed Lemna minor as a tool for testing toxicity of coal residues and polluted sediments. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1993; 25(1): 3-11. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00230704
- DeFoe DL. Arsenic (V) Test Results Memorandom ORL Spehar. US Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory Duluth, MN, USA, dated July 9, 1982.
- Cockell, KA, Hilton JW, Bettger WJ. Hepatobiliary and Hematological Effects of Dietary Disodium Arsenate Heptahydrate in Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Comp Biochem Physiol, Part C. 1992; 103(3): 453-458. https://doi.org/10.1016/0742-8413(92)90164-3
- Morris HP, Laug EP, Morris HJ, Grant RL. The growth and reproduction of rats fed diets containing lead acetate and arsenic trioxide and the lead and arsenic content of newborn and suckling rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1938; 64(4): 420-445.
- European Commission CIRCABC. Lead Environmental Quality Standards dossier. 2011: 1-66.
- Stanley T, Spann J, Smith G and Roscoe R. Main and interactive effects of arsenic and selenium on mallard reproduction and duckling growth and survival. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1994; 26(4): 444-451. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00214145
- California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). Technical support Document for Exposure Assessment and Stochastic Analyis September 2000. Appendix H Fish Bioconcentration Factors. Available: http://oehha.ca.gov.media/downloads/crnr/apenh.pdf [accessed 30 September 2019].
- World Health Organization (WHO). Environmental health criteria224. Arsenic and Arsenic compounds. Second edition. 2001: 1-114.
- National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER). Risk Assement of Chemical on the National Priority List. 2013: 1-80.
- Ministry of Environment. http://webbook.me.go.kr/DLi_File/091/018/006/5557572.pdf [accessed 20 October 2019].
- Kim SW, Kwak JI, Yoon JY, Jeong SW, AN YJ. Selection of Domestic Test Species Suitable for Korean Soil Ecological Risk Assessment. J Korean Soc Environ Eng. 2014; 36(5): 359-366. https://doi.org/10.4491/KSEE.2014.36.5.359
- An YJ, Lee WM, Nam SH, Jeong SW. Proposed Approach of Korean Ecological Risk Assessment for the Derivation of Soil Quality Criteria. J Soil Groundw Environ. 2010; 15(3): 7-14.
- National Institute of Environmental Research. Multi-media and multi-pathway aggregate risk assessment (IV)-Lead (Pb)-. 2014: 1-183.
- National Institute of Environmental Research. Multi-media and multi-pathway aggregate risk assessment (IV)-Arsenic (As)-. 2014: 1-177.
- Philippe C, Merin K, Alberto P. Estimating Hazardous concentrations by an informative bayesian approach. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2013; 32(3): 602-611. https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.2096