Phenylalanine and valine differentially stimulate milk protein synthetic and energy-mediated pathway in immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cells

  • Kim, Jungeun (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Sanghuh College of Life Sciences, Konkuk University) ;
  • Lee, Jeong-Eun (Institute of Integrated Technology, CJ CheilJedang) ;
  • Lee, Jae-Sung (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Sanghuh College of Life Sciences, Konkuk University) ;
  • Park, Jin-Seung (Institute of Integrated Technology, CJ CheilJedang) ;
  • Moon, Jun-Ok (Institute of Integrated Technology, CJ CheilJedang) ;
  • Lee, Hong-Gu (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Sanghuh College of Life Sciences, Konkuk University)
  • Received : 2020.02.10
  • Accepted : 2020.03.04
  • Published : 2020.03.31


Studies on promoting milk protein yield by supplementation of amino acids have been globally conducted. Nevertheless, there is a lack of knowledge of what pathways affected by individual amino acid in mammary epithelial cells that produce milk in practice. Phenylalanine (PHE) and valine (VAL) are essential amino acids for dairy cows, however, researches on mammary cell levels are still lacking. Thus, the aim of this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of PHE and VAL on milk protein synthesis-related and energy-mediated cellular signaling in vitro using immortalized bovine mammary epithelial (MAC-T) cells. To investigate the effects of PHE and VAL, the following concentrations were added to treatment medium: 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 mM. The addition of PHE or VAL did not adversely affect cell viability compared to control group. The concentrations of cultured medium reached its maximum at 0.9 mM PHE and 0.6 mM VAL (p < 0.05). Therefore, aforementioned 2 treatments were analyzed for proteomics. Glucose transporter 1 and mammalian target of rapamycin mRNA expression levels were up-regulated by PHE (166% and 138%, respectively) (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, sodium-dependent neutral amino acids transporter type 2 (ASCT2) and β-casein were up-regulated by VAL (173% in ASCT2, 238% in and 218% in β-casein) (p < 0.05). A total of 134, 142, and 133 proteins were detected in control group, PHE treated group, and VAL treated group, respectively. Among significantly fold-changed proteins, proteins involved in translation initiation or energy metabolism were detected, however, expressed differentially between PHE and VAL. Thus, pathway analysis showed different stimulatory effects on energy metabolism and transcriptional pathways. Collectively, these results showed different stimulatory effects of PHE and VAL on protein synthesis-related and energy-mediated cellular signaling in MAC-T cells.


Supported by : Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry (IPET)


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