- Volume 30 Issue 1
DOI QR Code
Analysis of the U.S. Federal Courts' Separability Doctrines for Arbitration Clause Entered Into by the Mentally Incapacitated
정신적 무능력자가 체결한 중재약정에 관한 미국 연방법원의 분리가능성 법리의 분석
- 신승남 (이화여자대학교 법학전문대학원)
- Received : 2020.01.31
- Accepted : 2020.02.26
- Published : 2020.03.02
Under the doctrine of separability, if the party did not specifically challenge the validity of the arbitration clause, then it is presumed valid, and arbitrators would still have authority to adjudicate disputes within the scope of the arbitration clause. Further, the Primerica and Spahr decisions address whether a court or an arbitrator should adjudicate a claim that a contract containing an arbitration clause is void ab initio due to mental incapacity. If the arbitration agreement is separable, as was found in Primerica, then the "making" of the agreement is not at issue when the challenge is directed at the entire contract and arbitrators may exercise authority. If an arbitration provision is not separable from the underlying contract, as in Spahr, a defense of mental incapacity necessarily goes against both the entire contract and the arbitration agreement, so the "making" of the agreement to arbitrate is at issue, and the claim is for courts to decide. Although no bright line rule can be established to deal with challenges of lack of mental capacity to an arbitration agreement, the rule in Prima Paint should not be extended to this defense. Extending the rule in Prima Paint would force an individual with a mental incapacity to elect between challenging the entire contract and challenging arbitration. Accordingly, there should be a special set of rules outside of the context of Prima Paint to address the situation of status-based defenses, specifically mental capacity defenses, to contracts containing arbitration provisions.
Supported by : 한국연구재단
- 강수미, 미국 판례 상 중재조항의 분리가능성에 관한 고찰, 중재연구 제24권 제2호 (2014).
- 김상만, 계약 및 중재합의의 유효성의 소송 대상 적격성에 대한 미국 연방대법원의 입장에 관한 연구 - 미국 연방대법원의 Buckeye Check Cashing v. Cardegna (2006) 판례를 중심으로-, 동아법학 50호 (2011).
- 박영길, 국제상사중재에 있어서의 분리원칙과 중재인의 자기 관할권 판정의 원칙, 중재연구 제13권 제2호 (2004).
- 하충룡, 소비자중재합의의 미국계약법상 항변, 중재연구 제20권 제2호 (2010).
- Joseph D. Calamari & Jospeh M. Perillo, Contracts 478 n. 76 (3rd ed. 1987).
- Sinai Deutch, Unfair Contracts 122(1977).
John Edward Murray, Jr., Murray on Contracts
- Richard A. Epstein, Unconscionability: A Critical Reappraisal, 18 J.L. & Econ. 293, 302-03 (1975).
- E. Allan Farnsworth, Farnsworth on Contracts Sec. 5.8, at 70 (1990).
Richard A. Lord, Williston on Contracts
$\S$18.10 (4th ed. 1998).
- Claude D. Rohwer & Anthony M. Skrocki, Contract in a Nutshell 319 (5th ed. 2000).
- Autumn Smith, You Can't Judge Me: Mental Capacity Challenges To Arbitration Provisions, 56 Baylor Law Review 1051 (2004).
Federal Arbitration Act Title 9, U.S. C.
NASD Code of Arbitration Procedure
Restatement (Second) of Contracts
- UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration, Article 21 (1985).
- Dustin Charters, Uphill Battle or Insurmountable Peak? The Pursuit to Uphold Provisions within Arbitration Agreements, 47 Idaho Law Review 679 (2011).