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Clinical Features of and Antibiotic Resistance in Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection in Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux

  • Eun, So Hyun (Department of Pediatrics, Severance Children's Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine) ;
  • Kang, Ji-Man (Department of Pediatrics, Severance Children's Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine) ;
  • Kim, Ji Hong (Department of Pediatrics, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine) ;
  • Kim, Sang Woon (Department of Urology and Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine) ;
  • Lee, Yong Seung (Department of Urology and Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine) ;
  • Han, Sang Won (Department of Urology and Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine) ;
  • Ahn, Jong Gyun (Department of Pediatrics, Severance Children's Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine)
  • Received : 2019.10.29
  • Accepted : 2019.11.28
  • Published : 2020.04.25

Abstract

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) in children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and to compare the causative uropathogen and antibiotic susceptibility between the first and recurrent UTI episodes. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with VUR who had recurrent UTI. Group 1 included patients in whom the same pathogen caused the first and recurrent UTI episodes. Group 2 included patients in whom different pathogens caused the first and recurrent UTI episodes. Results: During a 13-year study period (2005-2018), 77 children with VUR experienced at least one episode of UTI. Among these, 47 patients (61.0%) had recurrent UTI. Of the children with recurrent UTI, 19 (40.4%) were in group 1 and 28 (59.6%) were in group 2. Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated uropathogen (n=37; 39.4%) in both episodes of recurrent UTIs, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=18; 19.1%), Enterococcus faecalis (n=14; 14.9%), and Enterobacter aerogenes (n=7; 7.4%). Although the difference was not significant, the rate of resistance to the antibiotics ceftazidime, piperacillin/tazobactam, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole increased in patients with the second episode of E. coli recurrence in group 1, and that to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, piperacillin/tazobactam, and meropenem increased in children with the second episode of E. aerogenes recurrence in group 1. Conclusions: When selecting empirical antibiotics for recurrent UTI in children with VUR, it is important to consider that the pathogen and antimicrobial susceptibility of the previous UTI are not always the same in recurrent UTIs.

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