A Study on the Effect of Entrepreneurial Mentoring on Entrepreneurial Intention: Mediating Effects of Social Support and Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy

창업멘토링이 창업의도에 미치는 영향 연구: 사회적지지, 창업자기효능감의 매개효과

  • Cho, Han Jun (Dept of Technology Entrepreneurship, Graduate School, Dongguk University) ;
  • Choi, Dea Soo (Dept of Information and Communications, Joong-Bu University) ;
  • Sung, Chang Soo (Dept of Technology Entrepreneurship, Graduate School, Dongguk University)
  • 조한준 (동국대학교 기술창업학과) ;
  • 최대수 (중부대학교 소프트웨어공학부) ;
  • 성창수 (동국대학교 기술창업학과)
  • Received : 2020.03.11
  • Accepted : 2020.04.23
  • Published : 2020.04.30


The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of entrepreneurial mentoring as an effective support method to increase the awareness and entrepreneurial intention of university students. Therefore, the mediating effect of social support and entrepreneurial self-efficacy was demonstrated in the relationship between entrepreneurial mentoring and entrepreneurial intention. As a result of the analysis, the positive role of entrepreneurial mentoring was confirmed as an influencing factor to increase the intention of young prospective entrepreneurs to set up and increase their expectations for social support. Specifically, entrepreneurial mentoring had a significant positive effect on entrepreneurial intention, social support, and entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Social support had a significant positive effect on entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intention, respectively, and partially mediated the relationship between entrepreneurial mentoring and entrepreneurial intention. Entrepreneurial self-efficacy had a positive effect on entrepreneurial intention, and entrepreneurial self-efficacy fully mediated between entrepreneurial mentoring and entrepreneurial intention. Through this study, it was proved that entrepreneurial mentoring is an important factor that positively influences entrepreneurial intention, social support, and entrepreneurial self-efficacy. In addition, by identifying the effect of social support on entrepreneurial self-efficacy, it was confirmed that the individual's self-confidence and efficacy increased when they recognized the belief or utilization of social support. Finally, by confirming that entrepreneurial mentoring has a positive effect on social support and that social support mediates between entrepreneurial mentoring and entrepreneurial intention, the entrepreneurial mentoring program raises the entrepreneurial intention to start a business and helps founders to social support. It has been confirmed that it can be used as a way to raise the awareness and effect of startup supporting policy in practice as well.


  1. Ahn, T. U., & Lee, I. A.(2017). The Effects of Mentoring Education on Self-Efficacy and Entrepreneurial Intention: focusing on College start-up clubs activity moderating effects. Korean Journal of Local Government & Administraion Studies, 31(3), 141-161.
  2. Ajzen, I.(1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 50(2), 179-211. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T
  3. Austin, M. J., & Nauta, M. M.(2016). Entrepreneurial role-model exposure, self-efficacy, and women's entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Career Development, 43(3), 260-272. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894845315597475
  4. Bandura, A.(1992). Exercise of personal agency through the self-efficacy mechanism. Self-efficacy: Thought control of action, 1, 3-37.
  5. Bandura, A.(1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. Macmillan.
  6. Bandura, A.(1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological review, 84(2), 191. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191
  7. BarNir, A., Watson, W. E., & Hutchins, H. M. (2011). Mediation and moderated mediation in the relationship among role models, self‐efficacy, entrepreneurial career intention, and gender. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41(2), 270-297. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2010.00713.x
  8. Basu, A., & Virick, M.(2008). Assessing entrepreneurial intentions amongst students: A comparative study. In VentureWell, Proceedings of Open, the Annual Conference (p. 79). National Collegiate Inventors &Innovators Alliance.
  9. Boyd, N. G., & Vozikis, G. S.(1994). The influence of self-efficacy on the development of entrepreneurial intentions and actions. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 18(4), 63-77. https://doi.org/10.1177/104225879401800404
  10. Burke, R. J.(1984). Mentors in organizations. Group & Organization Studies, 9(3), 353-372. https://doi.org/10.1177/105960118400900304
  11. Carr, J. C., & Sequeira, J. M.(2007). Prior family business exposure as intergenerational influence and entrepreneurial intent: A theory of planned behavior approach. Journal of business research, 60(10), 1090-1098. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.12.016
  12. Cho, J. H., & Park, C. Y.(2017). The Development and Validation Study of the Entrepreneurial Mentoring Scale. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship, 12(5), 67-77. https://doi.org/10.16972/apjbve.12.5.201710.67
  13. Choi, S. H., Won, S. K., & Han, S. S.(2016). A study on the effect of university entrepreurship education on entrepreurial intention in Gangnueng area. International Area Studies Review, 20(4), 185-201. https://doi.org/10.21212/IASR.20.4.10
  14. Choo, S., & Wong, M.(2006). Entrepreneurial intention: triggers and barriers to new venture creations in Singapore. Singapore management review, 28(2), 47-64.
  15. Cohen, S., & Hoberman, H. M.(1983). Positive events and social supports as buffers of life change stress 1. Journal of applied social psychology, 13(2), 99-125. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1983.tb02325.x
  16. Courneya, K. S., Plotnikoff, R. C., Hotz, S. B., & Birkett, N. J.(2000). Social support and the theory of planned behavior in the exercise domain. American Journal of Health Behavior, 24(4), 300-308. https://doi.org/10.5993/AJHB.24.4.6
  17. Cox, L. W., Mueller, S. L., & Moss, S. E.(2002). The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial self-efficacy. International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 1(2), 229-245.
  18. Crant, J. M.(1996). The proactive personality scale as a predictor of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of small business management, 34, 42-49.
  19. Douglas, E. J., & Shepherd, D. A.(2002). Self-employment as a career choice: Attitudes, entrepreneurial intentions, and utility maximization. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 26(3), 81-90. https://doi.org/10.1177/104225870202600305
  20. Engle, R. L., Schlaegel, C., & Dimitriadi, N.(2011). Institutions and entrepreneurial intent: A cross-country study. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 16(02), 227-250. https://doi.org/10.1142/S1084946711001811
  21. Farooq, M. S., Salam, M., ur Rehman, S., Fayolle, A., Jaafar, N., & Ayupp, K.(2018). Impact of support from social network on entrepreneurial intention of fresh business graduates: A structural equation modelling approach. Education+Training, 60(4), 335-353.
  22. Gird, A., & Bagraim, J. J.(2008). The theory of planned behaviour as predictor of entrepreneurial intent amongst final-year university students. South african journal of psychology, 38(4), 711-724. https://doi.org/10.1177/008124630803800410
  23. Greenberger, D. B., & Sexton, D. L.(1988). An interactive model of new venture initiation. Journal of small business management, 26(3), 1-7.
  24. Gupta, V. K., Turban, D. B., Wasti, S. A., & Sikdar, A.(2009). The role of gender stereotypes in perceptions of entrepreneurs and intentions to become an entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 33(2), 397-417. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00296.x
  25. Hayes, A. F.(2017). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford publications.
  26. Herron, L., & Robinson Jr, R. B.(1993). A structural model of the effects of entrepreneurial characteristics on venture performance. Journal of business venturing, 8(3), 281-294. https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-9026(93)90032-Z
  27. Hong, J. W., Yeom, J. H., & Kim, K. H.(2018). A study on factors affecting the entrepreneurial intention of potential female entrepreneurs. Productivity Review, 32(4), 333-362. https://doi.org/10.15843/kpapr.32.4.2018.12.333
  28. House, J. S.(1981). The nature of social support. Work stress and social support, 1330.
  29. Im, G. S.(2016). The Effects of Social Support and Institutional Support on Nascent Entrepreneur's Behavior. Doctoral dissertation, Hoseo University.
  30. Jeon, H. J., & Park, J. W.(2015). A Study on Changes of Entrepreneurial Ecosystem on Women Entrepreneurial Intentions. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship, 10(2), 85-96.
  31. Jung, H. D.(2013). The Effect of Mentoring on Young Entrepreneur's Opportunity Recognition: Focused on The Mediating Effects of Self-efficacy and Schema. Master's Thesis, Soongsil University.
  32. Kautonen, T., Van Gelderen, M., & Fink, M.(2015). Robustness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting entrepreneurial intentions and actions. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 39(3), 655-674. https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12056
  33. Kim, C. H., & Yoo. Y. H.(2019). A Study on the Entrepreneurial Intention Determinants of University Students': Mediating Effect of Social Support. The Journal of Small Business Innovation, 22(3), 65-81.
  34. Kim, H. R.(2008). An Empirical Study on the Effects of Personality and Self Leadership of Potential Founders in the Micro Business Area on Founder Self-efficacy: Applying the Big Five Factors Model and the Self-Leadership Theory. Korean Journal of Business Administration, 21(6), 2393-2420.
  35. Kim, Y. T.(2019). The Influence of Education and Mentoring of Entrepreneurship on the Intentions of Business Start-Up:Focusing on Self-Efficiency and Resilience. Master's Thesis, Hoseo University.
  36. Kim, J. H.(2013). The effects of social entrepreneurship and the social support on entrepreneurial behavior. Doctoral dissertation, Chung-ang University.
  37. Koe, W. L., Sa'ari, J. R., Majid, I. A., & Ismail, K.(2012). Determinants of entrepreneurial intention among millennial generation. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 40, 197-208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.03.181
  38. Korea Institute of Startup & Entrepreneurship Development(2019). Survey on the recognition of start-up and venture policy(Research-2018). Sejong: Korea Institute of Startup & Entrepreneurship Development.
  39. Kram, K. E.(1983). Phases of the mentor relationship. Academy of Management journal, 26(4), 608-625.
  40. Kram, K. E.(1988). Mentoring at work: Developmental relationships in organizational life. University Press of America.
  41. Krueger, N. F., & Carsrud, A. L.(1993). Entrepreneurial intentions: Applying the theory of planned behaviour. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 5(4), 315-330. https://doi.org/10.1080/08985629300000020
  42. Krueger Jr, N. F., & Brazeal, D. V.(1994). Entrepreneurial potential and potential entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 18(3), 91-104.
  43. Krueger Jr, N. F., Reilly, M. D., & Carsrud, A. L.(2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of business venturing, 15(5-6), 411-432. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(98)00033-0
  44. Kuratko, D. F.(2005). The emergence of entrepreneurship education: Development, trends, and challenges. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 29(5), 577-597. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2005.00099.x
  45. Lee, H. K., & Lee, I. H.(2016). The Study of the Effects of College Students Creativity and Self-efficacy on Entrepreneurial Intention. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship, 11(3), 111-120.
  46. Lee, H. S., & Baek, M. J.(2012). Individual Characteristics on Entrepreneurial Intention: Examining the Moderating Role of Subjective Norm. Advancing Small Enterprise Innovation Research(JSBI), 15(2), 65-84.
  47. Lee, I. T., & Kim, W. J.(2015). The effects of entrepreneurial mentoring on entrepreneurial intention: Focus on the entrepreneurial knowledge and job challenge. Journal of Korea Service Management Society, 16(2), 115-133. https://doi.org/10.15706/jksms.2015.16.2.006
  48. Lee, M. K.(2007). A study of the mediating effect and adjusting effect of the mentoring: focusing on the mentor's competency and mentoring functions. Doctoral dissertation, Soongsil University.
  49. Lim, H. Y.(2019). The Moderating Effects of Career Barriers Factors in the Structural Relationship among Entrepreneurial Career Intention, Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy, and Entrepreneurial Alertness of Undergraduate Students. Doctoral dissertation, Seoul National University.
  50. Linan, F., & Chen, Y. W.(2009). Development and cross- cultural application of a specific instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 33(3), 593-617. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00318.x
  51. Manning, K., Birley, S., & Norburn, D.(1989). Developing a new ventures strategy. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 14(1), 67-76. https://doi.org/10.1177/104225878901400106
  52. McGee, J. E., Peterson, M., Mueller, S. L., & Sequeira, J. M.(2009). Entrepreneurial self‐efficacy: refining the measure. Entrepreneurship theory and Practice, 33(4), 965-988. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00304.x
  53. Ministry of Employment and Labor(2020). According to employment administration statistics, December '19 labor market trend(2020-01). Sejong: Ministry of Employment and Labor.
  54. Ministry of SMEs and Startups(2020). Support for start-ups by ministry in 2020. Sejong: Ministry of SMEs and Startups.
  55. Noe, R. A.(1988). Women and mentoring: A review and research agenda. Academy of management review, 13(1), 65-78. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1988.4306784
  56. Noe, R. A.(1988). An investigation of the determinants of successful assigned mentoring relationships. Personnel psychology, 41(3), 457-479. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1988.tb00638.x
  57. Oh, J. U., & Yang, D. U.(2014). An Empirical Study on the Effect of Entrepreneurship Mentoring Function on Entrepreneurship Competence: Focusing on the Moderating Effect of Entrepreneurship Preparation Period and Entrepreneurship Hope Period. In Proceedings of the Korea Technology Innovation Society Conference (pp. 197-211), Asian Society for Innovation and Policy.
  58. Oh, S. H., & Ha, K. S.(2013). Effects on Entrepreneurial Intention by Start-up Environment and Self-efficacy Mediated by Fear of Business Failure. The Journal of Digital Policy & Management, 11(8), 143-157.
  59. Park, K. K., & Lee, K. M.(2010). The Relationships among Mentor's Characteristics, Mentoring and Mentee's Attitudes. Korean Journal of Business Administration, 23(5), 2841-2859.
  60. Park, S. H., & Chae, Y. H.(2017). The Effects of Social Capital and Social Support on Business Efficacy and Business Performance of Female Start-up Women. Korea Association of Business Education 2017 Fall Academic Conference, 231-239.
  61. Park, S. M.(2006). A study of development and validation of mentoring-function scale for college students. Journal of Fishries and Marine Sciences Education, 18(1), 49-57.
  62. Park, Y. H., & Kim, Y. T.(2014). A Study on the Effect of Mentoring on the Entrepreneurial and Management Performance. The Journal of Business Education, 28(5), 513-528.
  63. Peterman, N. E., & Kennedy, J.(2003). Enterprise education: Influencing students' perceptions of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 28(2), 129-144. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1540-6520.2003.00035.x
  64. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of applied psychology, 88(5), 879. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879
  65. Ragins, B. R., & Cotton, J. L.(1991). Easier said than done: Gender differences in perceived barriers to gaining a mentor. Academy of Management Journal, 34(4), 939-951.
  66. Ragins, B. R., & Scandura, T. A.(1994). Gender differences in expected outcomes of mentoring relationships. Academy of management Journal, 37(4), 957-971.
  67. Schwarz, E. J., Wdowiak, M. A., Almer‐Jarz, D. A., & Breitenecker, R. J.(2009). The effects of attitudes and perceived environment conditions on students' entrepreneurial intent. Education+ Training.
  68. Scott, M. G., & Twomey, D. F.(1988). The long-term supply of entrepreneurs: students' career aspirations in relation to entrepreneurship. Journal of small business management, 26(4), 5.
  69. Shan, L., & Heo, C. M.(2019). Effects of Entrepreneurship Motivation on Entrepreneurial Opportunity Competence in Preliminary Young Entrepreneurs: Focusing on Mediating Effects Of Entrepreneurial Efficacy and Entrepreneurial Orientation. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship, 14(1), 117-137. https://doi.org/10.16972/apjbve.14.1.201902.117
  70. Shapero, A., & Sokol, L.(1982). The social dimensions of entrepreneurship. Encyclopedia of entrepreneurship, 72-90.
  71. Shiri, N., Mohammadi, D., & Hosseini, S. M.(2012). Entrepreneurial intention of agricultural students: effects of role model, social support, social norms and perceived desirability. Archives of Applied Science Research, 4(2), 892-897.
  72. Solesvik, M. Z.(2013). Entrepreneurial motivations and intentions: investigating the role of education major. Education+Training.
  73. Souitaris, V., Zerbinati, S., & Al-Laham, A.(2007). Do entrepreneurship programmes raise entrepreneurial intention of science and engineering students? The effect of learning, inspiration and resources. Journal of Business venturing, 22(4), 566-591. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2006.05.002
  74. St-Jean, E., Radu-Lefebvre, M., & Mathieu, C.(2018). Can less be more? Mentoring functions, learning goal orientation, and novice entrepreneurs' self-efficacy. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research.
  75. Turker, D., & Sonmez Selcuk, S.(2009). Which factors affect entrepreneurial intention of university students?. Journal of European industrial training, 33(2), 142-159. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090590910939049
  76. Tran, A. T., & Von Korflesch, H.(2016). A conceptual model of social entrepreneurial intention based on the social cognitive career theory. Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 10(1), 17-38. https://doi.org/10.1108/APJIE-12-2016-007
  77. Van Auken, H., Fry, F. L., & Stephens, P.(2006). The influence of role models on entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of developmental Entrepreneurship, 11(02), 157-167. https://doi.org/10.1142/S1084946706000349
  78. Vaux, A.(1988). Social support: Theory, research, and intervention. Praeger publishers.
  79. Wanberg, C. R., Welsh, E. T., & Hezlett, S. A.(2003). Mentoring research: A review and dynamic process model. In Research in personnel and human resources management, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 22, 39-124.
  80. Wilson, F., Kickul, J., & Marlino, D.(2007). Gender, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and entrepreneurial career intentions: Implications for entrepreneurship education. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 31(3), 387-406. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2007.00179.x
  81. Wu, S., & Wu, L.(2008). The impact of higher education on entrepreneurial intentions of university students in China. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 15(4), 752-774. https://doi.org/10.1108/14626000810917843
  82. Xu, M.(2014). The Effect of the Role Model on the Entrepreneurial Intention among Chinese College Students: On the Mediating Effects of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy. Master's Thesis, Soongsil University.
  83. Yoo, B. H.(2014). A Study on Influential Factors of Self-leadership on Start-up Intention. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, 15(3), 1382-1389. https://doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2014.15.3.1382
  84. Yoo, B. J., Jeon, S. M., & Seok, M. S.(2018). A Study on the Effect of Mentoring Skills and Mentoring Functions on Start-up Mentoring Satisfaction: Focused on the Moderating Effects of the Characteristics of Entrepreneurs. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship, 13(6), 15-25.
  85. Yook, C. H.(2015). Effect of Entrepreneur's Characteristics on Entrepreneurial Intention: Focusing on the Moderating Effect of Entrepreneurial Mentoring. Doctoral dissertation, Hoseo University.
  86. Yoon, I. C.(2017). Effect on startup mentoring, education satisfaction, and startup intention according to the individual characteristic of university student. Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, 8(6), 265-273.
  87. Zahra, S. A., & Wright, M.(2011). Entrepreneurship's next act. Academy of Management Perspectives, 25(4), 67-83. https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2010.0149
  88. Zhao, H., Seibert, S. E., & Hills, G. E.(2005). The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of applied psychology, 90(6), 1265. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.6.1265
  89. Zhao, H., Seibert, S. E., & Lumpkin, G. T.(2010). The relationship of personality to entrepreneurial intentions and performance: A meta-analytic review. Journal of management, 36(2), 381-404.
  90. 허미영(2014). 중국대학생의 역할모델이 창업의도에 미치는 영향: 창업자기효능감의 매개효과를 중심으로. 석사학위논문, 숭실대학교. 벤처중소기업학과.