DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Putin as Renaissance Ruler

  • SHLAPENTOKH, DMITRY (History at Indiana University South Bend)
  • Published : 2020.06.15

Abstract

The study of Putin's Russia should be placed in a broad historiographical context, prevailing in the West. While in the beginning of the post-Soviet era, most observers believed that Russia would reach a Fukuyamian "end of history," the situation is quite different now. At present, Western observers see Putin's Russia as the manifestation of authoritarianism. While this assumption is undoubtedly true, it does not provide much insight into the regime's operational model. Here, a comparison with Renaissance and early modern Europe might provide a clue to the operational model of the regime. Similar to early modern European rulers, Putin limits the use of direct and wide use of force, preferring manipulation, corruption, and the targeted killing of his most important enemies. In foreign policy, Putin has tried to avoid wholesale conflicts and broadly uses mercenaries, whose relationships with the Kremlin are downplayed. The similarities between Putin's regime and early modern European regimes do not mean that their destinies will be the same. In Europe, the Renaissance led to centralized states, whereas in Russia, the "Renaissance" could well lead to the country's disintegration.

References

  1. "Anadolu: 1.6 Tys. Boitsov ChVK 'Vagner' Pokinuli Zonu Boevykh Deistvii na Zapade Livii." https://www.znak.com/2020-05-25/, May 25, 2020.
  2. Babayan, Nelli. "The Return of the Empire? Russia's Counteraction to Transatlantic Democracy Promotion in its Near Abroad." Democratization 22, no. 3 (May 2015).
  3. Babyan, Nelli. "Putting 'Traditional Values' into Practice: the Rise and Contestation of Anti-homosexual Propaganda Laws in Russia." Journal of Human Rights 13, no. 3 (July-September 2014).
  4. Blake, Heidi. From Russia with Blood: the Kremlin's Ruthless Assassination Program and Vladimir Putin's Secret War on the West. New York: Mulholland Books/Little, Brown and Company, 2019.
  5. Blake, Heidi. "How the Kremlin's Assassins Sowed Terror through the Streets of London while British Authorities Scrambled to Stop them." BuzzFeed, November 19, 2019.
  6. "Boitsy ChVK 'Vagnera' zhestoko ubilii siriitsa: otpilili golovu, a telo sozhgli (18+)." Ves'ma, January 29, 2019.
  7. Boudarenko, Dmitry. "V OON Rasskazali, Chem Zanimaiutsia Naemniki Putina v Livii i skol'ko Zarabatyvaiut." Liga Novosti, May 7, 2020.
  8. Brennan, Jason. Against Democracy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017.
  9. "BuzzFeed: Iz Rossii s krov'iu. Kak v Britanii pogibaiut vragi Putina." The Insider, June 21, 2017.
  10. "ChBK v Afganistane: Chto Budet Posle Sdelki?" Regnum, March 10, 2020.
  11. Cooper, Ryan. "Tyranny is Fueling the Coronavirus Pandemic." The Week, February 24, 2020.
  12. Danilevsky, Nikolai. Rossiya i Yevropa. Moscow: Kniga, 1990 [1885].
  13. Donati, Jessica. "U.S. Troops in Standoffs with Russian Military Contractors in Syria. Top U.S. Envoy Warns that Rise in Tensions could Lead to Hostile Action between Two Powers." Wall Street Journal, February 6, 2020.
  14. Doyle, Michael W. "Liberalism and Foreign Policy" in Foreign Policy: Theories, Actors, Cases, edited by Steve Smith, Amelia Hadfield and Tim Dunne. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
  15. Dunlop, John B. The Moscow Bombings of September 1999. Examinations of Russian terrorist Attacks at the Onset of Vladimir Putin's Rule. Stuttgart: Ibidem, 2012.
  16. Durkheim, Emile. Suicide: A Study in Sociology. Glencoe, Illinois: The Free Press(1897) [1951].
  17. "Erdogan Obvinil Rossiiskih Voenachal'nikov v 'Rukovodstve Voinoi' v Livii." Vedomosti, February 16, 2020.
  18. Etking, Alexander. "Post-Soviet Russia: The Land of the Oil Curse, Pussy Riot, and Magical Historicism." Boundary 2 41, no. 1 (2014).
  19. "Evgeniia Prigozhina Obvinili v Provokatsii na Vyborakh v Mosgordumu." Kommersant, December 21, 2019.
  20. Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage Books, 1995.
  21. Faucon, Benoit and James Marson, "Russia Leans on Mercenary Forces to Regain Clout." The Wall Street Journal, 24 February 2020.
  22. Filipov, David. "Here are 10 critics of Vladimir Putin who died Violently or in Suspicious Ways." The Washington Post, March 23, 2017.
  23. Fukuyama, Francis. The End of History and the Last Man. New York: Free Press, 1992.
  24. Gel'man, Vladimir. "Post-Soviet Transitions and Democratization: Towards Theory Building." Democratization 10, no. 2 (Summer 2003).
  25. Gerstein, Josh. "Feds: Mystery Witness will Implicate 'Putin's chef ' in Election Interference." Politico, March 4, 2020.
  26. Gessen, Masha. "How the Coronavirus Pandemic Fueled Trump's Autocratic Instinct." The New Yorker, March 13, 2020.
  27. Goodwin, Adam G. Putin: a Man's Manual of Manliness. Hoddesdon, U.K.: Portico, 2019.
  28. Gorokhov, Vitalii. "Forward Russia! Sports Mega-Events as a Venue for Building National Identity." Nationalities Papers 47, no. 2 (March 2015).
  29. Greene, Samuel A. and Graeme B. Robertson. Putin v. the People: the Perilous Politics of a Divided Russia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2019.
  30. Hanson, Victor Davis. Makers of Ancient Strategy: From the Persian Wars to the Fall of Rome. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010.
  31. Hetherington, Mark J. and Jonathan D. Weiler. Authoritarianism and Polarization in American Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
  32. Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679. Leviathan. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1968.
  33. Horvath, Robert. "Russkii Obraz and the Politics of 'Managed Nationalism'." Nationalities Papers 42, no. 3 (2014).
  34. Huntington, Samuel P. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1996.
  35. Ianevskii, Aleksandr. "Kak Rossiia ispol'zuet Polugosudarstvennye Voennye Kompanii v Svoikh Interesakh." https://www.golos-ameriki.ru, April 29, 2020.
  36. Il'chenko, Sergei. "Pakt Putina-Merkel, Kak Moskva i Berlin Snova Podelili Mir." https://rada5.com, January 14, 2020.
  37. Kagan, Robert. Of Paradise and Power: America and Europe in the New World Order. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003.
  38. Kay Linge, Mary. "These 8 Russian 'Traitors' Died Suspiciously on Foreign Soil." March 17, 2010.
  39. Kerner, Beat. "Putin and the Parliamentary Election in Russia: the Confluence (Slijanie) of Russian Political Culture and Leadership." East European Quarterly 38, no. 1 (Spring 2004).
  40. Khrushcheva, Nina L. and Jeffrey Tayler, In Putin's Footsteps: Searching for the Soul of an Empire Across Russia's Eleven Time Zones. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2019.
  41. Kirillova, Kseniya. "Russia Faces New Demands and Conditions from Bulgaria." Eurasia Daily Monitor 17, no. 22 (February 19, 2020).
  42. Knight, Amy W. Putin's Killers: the Kremlin and the Art of the Political Assassination. London: Biteback Publishing, 2019.
  43. Kolsto, Pal and Helge Blakkisrud. Russia Before and After Crimea: Nation and Identity, 2010-17. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2019.
  44. "Kompanii, sviazannye s Prigozhinym, Budut Razrabatyvat' tri Neftegazovykh Mestorozhdeniia v Sirii." Novaia Gazeta, 4 Gordon, January 20, 2020.
  45. Konstantin, Eggert. "Kommentarii: CVK Vagnera v Livii - na Sluzhbe Interesov Kremlia." DW, May 8, 2020.
  46. Korotkov, Denis. "Chem izvesten Evgenii Prigozhin." Kommersant, January 29, 2019.
  47. Kovalenko, Aleksandr. "Naemnik CVK 'Vagner' v Mozambike Vnov' Ponesli Poteri." Odesskii Kur'er, May 29, 2020.
  48. "Le Monde: 'Povar Putina' Prigozhin Byl na Vstreche s Liderami Vooruzhennykh Gruppirovok TsAR." Znak, December 17, 2018.
  49. Libman, Alexander and Anastassia V. Obydenkova. "CPSU Legacies and Regional Democracy in Contemporary Russia." Political Studies 63 (April 2015).
  50. Lipskii, Andrei. "Ot Sirii do Libii, A potom v Izrail'." Novaia Gazeta, January 27, 2020.
  51. Loftus, Suzanne. Insecurity & the Rise of Nationalism in Putin's Russia. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019.
  52. "Liviiskaia Kampaniia Fel'dmarshala Putina." detaly.co.il, April 1, 2020.
  53. Luttwak, Edward. The Grand Strategy of the Byzantine Empire. Cambridge: Belknap Press, 2011.
  54. Luxmoore, Matthew. "'Orange Plague': World War II and the Symbolic Politics of Prostate Mobilization in Putin's Russia." Nationalities Papers 47, no. 5 (September 2019).
  55. Machiavelli, Niccolo. 1469-1527. The Prince. New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books, 1981.
  56. Malia, Martin. The Soviet Tragedy: A History of Socialism in Russia, 1917-1991. New York: The Free Press, 1994.
  57. Malkova, Irina and Anton Baev, "Chastnaia Armiia Dlia Prezidenta: Istoriia Prrucheniia Evgeniia Prigozhina." Vremia i Den'gi, January 29, 2019.
  58. Marshal, Liviiski. "Pri Podderzhke Moskovskikh Naemnikov, Predprinial Novuiu Popytku Gosu Darstvennogo Perevorota." https://central.asia-new.com, April 29, 2020.
  59. Mateev, Ilya. "The 'Two Russia's Culture War: Construction of the 'People' during 2011-2013 protests." South Atlantic Quarterly 113, no. 1 (Winter 2014).
  60. Medvedev, Sergei. The Return of the Russian Leviathan. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2020.
  61. Pareto, Vilfredo. The Mind and Society. edited by Arthur Livingston. (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company. 1935).
  62. Petrov, Aleksandr. "Zapadnye SMI: ChVK Vagner sdal pozitsii v Livii." https://Yandex.ru/story, May 19, 2020.
  63. Prothera, Mitch. "'Unit 29155': Putin's Assassination Squad - Suspected of Killing all over Europe - Received Diplomatic Cover from the Russian Mission in Switzerland." Business Insider, March 16, 2020.
  64. "Putin Otpravil Sotni Naemnikov 'Vagnera' na Eshche Odnu Voinu." Obozrevatel, November 6, 2019.
  65. Reddaway, Peter. The Dissidents: a Memoir of Working with the Resistance in Russia, 1960-90. Washington D.C.: Brookings, 2020.
  66. Remizova, Mariia and Mikhail Ozerov, "Berezovsky byl ubit iz-za togo, chto sobiralsia peredat' Putinu svedeniia o popytke gosperevorota." Komsomolskaia Pravda, March 24, 2015.
  67. "Rossiiskie Khukhuzy. Sud'ba Liudei Prigozhina v Livii." Novaia Gazeta, May 24, 2020.
  68. "Russia's 'Private' Military Companies: the Example of the Wagner Group." CSIS Russia and Eurasia Program (rep@csis.org), March 9, 2020.
  69. Sakharov, Evgenii. "Naemniki i Neftianiki." News World, January 12, 2020.
  70. Salter, Lamar, Linette Lopez and Alana Kakoyiannis. "How a Series of Deadly Russian Apartment Bombings in 1999 led to Putin's Rise to Power." Business Insider, March 22, 2018.
  71. "SAM. Neirob osvobozhden. Na Iuge Idliba Asadity, Irantsy i Russkie Vedut Nastuplenie." Kavkaz Center, February 24, 2020.
  72. Satter, David. "The Unsolved Mystery Behind the Act of Terror that Brought Putin to Power." National Review, August 12, 2016.
  73. Semenov, Andrey. "Taming the Leviathan: How Russians Learn to Counter the State." Ponars Eurasia (March 2020).
  74. Shiriaev, Valerii. "Front pokatilsia." Novaia Gazeta, May 24, 2020.
  75. "Sily Koalitsii vo Glave s SShA sorvali Nastuplenie Storonnikov Asada v Sirii, bolee 100 Pogibzhikh - SMI." Gordon, February 8, 2018.
  76. Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr Isaevich. The Gulag Archipelago, 1918-1956: An Experiment In Literary Investigation. New York: Harper & Row, 1974-78.
  77. Spengler, Oswald. The Decline of the West. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1928.
  78. "SShA Nakladyvaiut Sanktsii na Okruzhenie Evgeniia Prigozhina." DW, October 1, 2019.
  79. "SShA Rasskazali o Stolknoveniiakh s Rossiiskimi ChVK v Sirii." Lenta.ru, February 11, 2020.
  80. "Sviazannye s Prigozhinym Kompanii Zaimutsia Dobychei Nefti v Sirii." Novaia Gazeta, January 19, 2020.
  81. "Taina Raskryta: Putin Poslal Killera k Berezovskomu." Detali (https://detaly.co.il/berezovskij), February 16, 2020.
  82. Toynbee, Arnold J. A Study of History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1946.
  83. "Tuda, Sudan Obratno." Novaia Gazeta, April 12, 2019.
  84. "V FSB Otreagirovali na Obvineniia v Podgotovke Spetsnaza dlia Ubiistv za Rubezhom." Lenta.ru, February 24. 2020.
  85. "V Kremle ne Videli Rolik o Zverstve 'Vagnerovtsev' v Sirii, no Uvereny, Chto eto ne Rossiiskie Voennye i Reputatsiia RF ne Postradaet," NEWSru.com, November 21, 2019.
  86. "Vagner. Pervaia neft'." Novaia Gazeta, January 19, 2020.
  87. Volchek, Dmitry. "Lisitsa zalezla v Kuriatnik," Radio "Svoboda." November 16, 2019.
  88. Walker, Shaun. The Long Hangover: Putin's New Russia and the Ghosts of the Past. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019.
  89. White, David and Marc Herzog. "Examining State Capacity in the Context of Electoral Authoritarianism, Regime Formation and Consolidation in Russia and Turkey." Southeast European and Black Sea Studies 16, no. 4 (2016).
  90. White, David and Marc Herzog. "Examining State Capacity in the Context of Electoral Authoritarianism, Regime Formation and Consolidation in Russia and Turkey." Southeast European and Black Sea Studies 16, no. 4 (2016).
  91. Winter, Tom. "Nikolas Glushkov, who had Links to Putin Critic, Dies in London." https://www.nbcnews.com, March 13, 2018.
  92. Wittfogel, Karl. Oriental Despotism. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press 1957.
  93. "Zachem Putinu nuzhna Afrika? Govoriat, chto Putin Kupil Afrikanskuiu Stranu. Eto Pravda?" etcetera, July 5, 2019.
  94. Zinoviev, Alexander. The Yawning Heights. Translated by Gordon Clough. New York: Random House, 1979.
  95. Zubok, Vladislav. Zhivago's Children: the Last Russian Intelligentsia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2011.