A Review of Research Trends on Trauma in Maritime Police Officers and Police Officers in Korea

해양경찰·경찰 공무원의 외상(trauma)관련 국내 연구 동향

  • Park, Kyung Ryun (Major in Clinical and Counseling Psychology, Department of Medicine, General Graduate School, CHA University)
  • 박경련 (차의과학대학교 의학과 임상상담심리전공)
  • Received : 2020.05.25
  • Accepted : 2020.06.26
  • Published : 2020.06.30


The purpose of this study was to analyze research trends on trauma in maritime police officers and police officers in Korea and suggest future research directions. We collected 57 studies related to trauma in maritime police and police from Korean Citation Index listed journals and analyzed basic information, subjects, research methods, measurements and related variables. The results showed that studies have been conducted sporadically from 2010 and only six out of the 57 studies were conducted for maritime police officers. Police administration (59.6 %) was the most common area of researchers' major, followed by psychology (19.3 %), medicine and nursing (10.5 %), social welfare (8.8 %) and education(1.8 %). Five out of the six maritime police studies were conducted in the police administration field. Most of the studies adopted the quantitative research method (78.9 %). Only three studies adopted the qualitative method, all of which targeted police officers. The IES-R-K was the most used PTSD scale, followed by the PDS and the PCL-5. Trauma-related variables were commonly conducted in the order of traumatic event experience, resilience, stress-coping methods and social support. Finally, the implications of the findings of our study and the suggestions for further research were discussed.


  1. American PsychiatricAssociation(2013), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5(R)), American Psychiatric Publication.
  2. American PsychiatricAssociation(2000), Diagnostic Criteria from DSM-iV-tr, American Psychiatric Publication.
  3. Bae, J. M.(2012), A Comparative Study on the Relationship among Posttraumatic Stress, Psychological Wellbeing, and Depression by SEM - Focusing on Policemen and Firefighters -, Journal of Korean Institute of Fire Science and Engineering, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 109-117.
  4. Bae, J. M.(2013), A Comparative Study on the Relationship among Posttraumatic Stress, Psychological Wellbeing and Depression: Focusing on the Moderating Effects of Social Support for Policemen and Firefighters, Korean Journal of Local Government & Administration Studies, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 277-306.
  5. Bae, J. H., E. H. Ha, and M. Lee(2014), Experiencing the Traumatic Event of Sewol Ferry for Journalists, Korean Journal of Journalism and Communication Studies, Vol. 58, No. 5, pp. 417-445.
  6. Beaton, R., S. Murphy, C. Johnson, K. Pike, and W. Corneil (1998), Exposure to duty‐related incident stressors in urban firefighters and paramedics, Journal of Traumatic Stress: Official Publication of The International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, VOl. 11, NO. 4, pp. 821-828.
  7. Benedek, D. M., C. Fullerton, and R. J. Ursano(2007), First responders: mental health consequences of natural and human-made disasters for public health and public safety workers, Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 28, pp. 55-68.
  8. Berger, W., E. S. F. Coutinho, I. Figueira, C. Marques-Portella, M. P. Luz, T. C. Neylan, C. R. Marmar, and M. V. Mendlowicz(2012), Rescuers at risk: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of the worldwide current prevalence and correlates of PTSD in rescue workers, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, Vol. 47, No.6, pp. 1001-1011.
  9. Bowler, R. M., M. Harris, J. Li, V. Gocheva, S. D. Stellman, K. Wilson, H. Alper, R. Schwarzer, and J. E. Cone(2012), Longitudinal mental health impact among police responders to the 9/11 terrorist attack, American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 55, No. 4, pp. 297-312.
  10. Eun, H. J., T. W. Kwon, S. M. Lee, T. H. Kim, M. R. Choi, and S. J. Cho(2005), A Study on Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Journal of the Korean Neuropsychiatric Association, Vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 303-310.
  11. Foa, E. B., L. Cashman, L. Jaycox, and K. Perry(1997), The validation of a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder: the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, Psychological Assessment, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 445-451.
  12. Haugen, P. T., M. Evces, and D. S. Weiss(2012), Treating posttraumatic stress disorder in first responders: A systematic review, Clinical Psychology Review, Vol. 32, No. 5, pp. 370-380.
  13. Herman, J. L.(1992), Complex PTSD: A syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma, Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 377-391.
  14. Hong, M. G. and H. S. Jang(2019), Factors Affecting the Burnout of the Korean Crime-victim Support Police Officers: Compassion Satisfaction-Compassion Fatigue and Occupational Stress, Journal of Korean Criminological Association, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 99-122.
  15. Horowitz, M., N. Wilner, and W. Alvarez(1979), Impact of Event Scale: A measure of subjective stress, Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 209-218.
  16. Im, J. M.(2018), About 90 suicide policemen in the last four years…more than policemen who died on duty, Newsis, September 30, Accessed May 10, 2020, article/23007616.
  17. Jang, H. S., S. H. Lee, S. N. Yang, and S. Y. Park(2017), Examination on the Reliability and Validity of ProQOL (Compassion Fatigue/Compassion Satisfaction) Scale for Korean Crime-victim Support Police Officers, The Korean Association of Police Science Review, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 187-213.
  18. Joongangilbo(2011), [Editorial] Another hero falls asleep in the West Sea, December 15, Accessed May 12, 2020,
  19. Ju, E. and Y. R. Cho(2018), Development and Psychometric Properties of the Posttraumatic Emotion Scale (PTES), Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Korea, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 435-465.
  20. Kang, G. J. and S. Y. Lee(2018), A Study on Countermeasure against Trauma and PTSD of Police Officers - Focused on In-depth Interview with Targets -, Korean Security Journal, Vol. 56, pp. 31-54.
  21. Kim, B. H.(2016), The Analysis of Casual Effects among Traumatic Events, PTSD in the Police Officers - Focused on the Police Officers in Busan Metropolitan -, Korean Journal of Public Safety and Criminal Justice, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 119-144.
  22. Kim, I. A. and S. H. Kim(2017), Police, Firefighter, Maritime Police Mental Health Business Integration and Operation Plan Research, Korean National Police Agency, Accessed May 20, 2020, do?research_id=1320000-201700038.
  23. Kim, J. G. and K. H. Kim(2013), Effects of Traumatic Event Experience on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Korea Maritime Police SWAT, Korean Association of Maritime Police Science, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 3-23.
  24. Kim, J. R., Y. J. Jang, and H. Jo(2019a), Research Trends in Trauma in Counseling and Psychotherapy(2001-2017), Korean Journal of Counseling, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 67-91.
  25. Kim, K. W., J. J. Jeong, H. Y. Kwon, Y. J. Lee, and C. K. Kim(2011), Analysis of Research in the Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy (2000-2009), The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 521-542.
  26. Kim, S. H. and M. H. Lee(2018), The Degree of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder of Marine Police Officers Relationship with Resilience, Asia-pacific Journal of Multimedia Services Convergent with Art, Humanities and Sociology, Vol. 8, No. 11, pp. 269-276.
  27. Kim, S. H., J. Sung, N. K. Seong, S. H. Kim, G. H. Leem, and J. H. Lee(2019b), Qualitative Research on the Psychological Experience of Police Officers after being Assaulted and Injured on Duty, The Police Science Journal, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 7-31.
  28. Kim, S. K., D. H. Lee, B. Jang, and S. Cheon(2015), The Research Trends on PTSD of Workers in High Risk Public Positions in Korea, Journal of Rehabilitation Psychology, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 393-416.
  29. Kim, Y. H.(2011), A multi-dimensional approach to disaster mental health and the roles and contributions of social work field. Korean Journal of Social Welfare Studies, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 5-34.
  30. Koo, H. J. and J. S. Lee(2016), Demographic, Job Characteristic and Psychosocial Factors Affecting Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Firefighters, Korean Journal of Psychology: General, Vol. 35, No. (1), pp. 65-88.
  31. Korea Coast Guard(2020), 2019 Korea Coast Guard Annual Report, Accessed April 30, 2020
  32. Korea Ministry of Government Legislation(2020), Framwork Act on the Management of Disasters and Safety, Accessed April 30, 2020,
  33. Kwon, S. M.(2013), Contemproary Abnormal Psychology, Hakjisa.
  34. Lee, H. S.(2012), A Comparative Study on the PTSD of Policeman and Firefighters, Crisisonomy, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 57-70.
  35. Lee, K. H. and S. J. Lee(2013), A Study on Traumatic Events of police officers in detective, The Korean Journal of Forensic Psychology, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 35-46.
  36. Lee, N. B. and H. N. Ahn(2016), A Meta Analysis Study of Predictors of Disaster Victims'post-traumatic Stress Response Based on Ecological Model, Korean Journal of Psychology: General, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 525-562.
  37. Lee, O. J. and Y. H. Ji(2010), Articles: The Analysis of Field Police Officers' Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms for the Application of Police Job Stress Reduction Program, The Korean Association of Police Science Review, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 173-203.
  38. Min, J. W., H. S. Joo, and H. N. Ahn(2016), Understanding Voluntary Disaster Workers with Their Burnout Pattern and the Group Differences in Secondary Traumatic Stress and World Assumptions, Korean Journal of Culture and Social Issues, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 363-385.
  39. Min, M. K., H. S. Joo, and H. N. Ahn(2018), Psychosocial Factors Influential to the Mental Health of the Public Indirectly Affected by the 9/12 Gyeong-ju Earthquake: Focusing on Individual Resilience, Social Support, Social Capital, and Public Trust, Korean Journal of Counseling, Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 93-116.
  40. Nam, B. R., H. I. Kwon, and J. H. Kwon(2010), Psychometric Qualities of the Korean Version of the Posttraumatic Diagnosis Scale (PDS-K), Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 147-167.
  41. National Human Rights Commission of Korea(2015), Firefighters' Human Rights Situation Survey, Accessed May 10, 2020, ttps://¤tpage=4&menuid=001003001004&pagesize=10&boardid=611362.
  42. Neria, Y. and G. M Sullivan(2011), Understanding the mental health effects of indirect exposure to mass trauma through the media, JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 306, No. 12, pp. 1374-1375.
  43. Nho, S. M. and E. A. Kim(2017), Factors Influencing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Crime Scene Investigators, Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 39-48.
  44. Oh, H. and D. Lee(2018), An Analysis of Research Trends in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Journal of Rehabilitation Psychology, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 823-838.
  45. Pearlman, L. A.(2003), Trauma and attachment belief scale (TABS). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
  46. Ryu, K. H. and T. K. Kim(2017), A Study on Vicarious Traumatization in Police Officers, The Journal of Police Science, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 59-86.
  47. Schauben, L. J. and P. A. Frazier(1995), Vicarious trauma the effects on female counselors of working with sexual violence survivors, Psychology of Women Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 49-64.
  48. Sin, S. W.(2007), A study on the effects of life and job experiences on the level of stress in police officers, Wonkwang University, Doctoral dissertation.
  49. Sin, S. W.(2012), Comparison of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder according to Organizational Characteristics among Police Officers, The Korea Contents Society, Vol. 12, No. 9, pp. 211-216.
  50. Song, J. and J. Jeong(2018), The Moderating Effect of Organization-based Self-esteem on Emotional Regulation Difficulties in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Among Firefighters, Journal of Rehabilitation Psychology, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 127-142.
  51. Song, S. H., H. S. Lee, J. H. Park, and K. H. Kim(2009), Validity and Reliability of the Korean Version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Korean Journal of Health Psychology, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 193-214.
  52. Stamm, B. H.(2010), The concise ProQOL manual, Pocatello, ID: pp. 1-30.
  53. Tedeschi, R. G. and L. G. Calhoun(1996), The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory: Measuring the positive legacy of trauma, Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 455-471.
  54. Weathers, F. W., B. T. Litz, T. M. Keane, P. A. Palmieri, B. P. Marx, and P. P. Schnurr(2013), The PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (pcl-5), Accessed May 10, 2020, Scale Available from the National Center for PTSD at
  55. Yang, S. N., H. S. Jang, S. Y. Park, and S. H. Lee(2018), A qualitative study about the unique work experience of crime-victim support police officers, The Korean Association of Police Science Review, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 157-193.