Price transmission in domestic agricultural markets: the case of retail and wholesale markets of maize in Rwanda

  • Ngango, Jules (Department of Agricultural Economics, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Hong, Seungjee (Department of Agricultural Economics, Chungnam National University)
  • Received : 2020.07.09
  • Accepted : 2020.07.28
  • Published : 2020.09.01


One of the main challenges receiving much attention in the Rwandan agriculture and food industry in recent decades is the increases in maize prices. Indeed, a rise in maize prices causes higher living expenses for households because maize, which is a major staple food crop, constitutes a significant share of total food consumption among households in Rwanda. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of integration and how prices are transmitted between retail and wholesale markets of domestic maize in Rwanda. This study used monthly data of retail and wholesale prices of maize from January 1995 to December 2019. This empirical investigation was based on a linear cointegration approach and an asymmetric error correction model framework. Using the augmented dickey-fuller residual-based test and the Johansen Maximum Likelihood cointegration test, the results revealed that the retail and wholesale markets of maize are integrated. Hence, prices in these markets do not drift apart in the long run. The results of the Granger causality test revealed that there is a unidirectional causal relationship flowing from wholesale prices to retail prices, i.e., wholesale prices influence retail prices. Accordingly, the results from the asymmetric error correction model confirmed the presence of a positive asymmetric price transmission between wholesale and retail prices of maize in Rwanda. Thus, we suggest that policymakers take a critical look at the causes and factors that may influence asymmetry price transmission.


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