Validation of the Need for Closure Scale-Short Form

단축형 종결 욕구의 타당화

  • Kim, Eunkyung (Department of Psychiatry, Hanyang University Guri Hospital)
  • 김은경 (한양대학교 구리병원 정신건강의학과)
  • Received : 2020.06.30
  • Accepted : 2020.10.05
  • Published : 2020.10.31


The purpose of the present study was to validate the Need for Closure Scale-Short Form (NFCS-SF), which measures the need for cognitive closure. Participants completed questionnaires regarding need for cognitive closure, intolerance of uncertainty, depression, and anxiety. Of the 536 data collected between May and July 2017, data from a total of 495 participants were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 and M-Plus. The results of the study are as follows. First, a 15-item selection comprised three items from each facet scale via exploratory factor analysis. Second, the NFCS-SF demonstrated good internal consistency (Study 1, Cronbach's α=.85; Study 2, Cronbach's α=.84). Third, the results of the confirmatory factor analyses supported a 5-factor model (χ2(80)=178.34, p<.001; CFI=.87, TLI=.83, RMSEA=.07, SRMR=.08). Fourth, the NFCS-SF showed significant correlation with the measures of intolerance of uncertainty (r=.58, p<.01), depression (r=.16, p<.05), and anxiety (state anxiety, r=.31, p<.01; trait anxiety, r=.29, as well as the NFCS (r=.86, p<.01). Based on these findings, significance and limitations of the results as well as suggestions for further study are discussed.

이 연구의 목적은 인지적 종결 욕구를 측정하는 단축형 종결 욕구 척도(NFCS-SF: Need for Closure Scale-Short Form)를 타당화하기 위함이었다. 참가자들은 인지적 종결 욕구, 불확실성에 대한 인내력 부족, 우울과 불안 설문지를 작성하였다. 2017년 5월~7월 동안 수집된 536개의 자료 중, 총 495명의 참가자의 자료를 SPSS 20.0과 M-Plus로 분석하였다. 연구결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 탐색적 요인분석 결과를 토대로 각 하위 영역에서 3문항을 선정하여 15문항의 NFCS-SF를 구성하였다. 둘째, NFCS-SF의 내적 일치도가 양호했다(연구 1, Cronbach's α=.85; 연구 2, Cronbach's α=.84). 셋째, 확인적 요인분석 결과 5요인 구조가 지지되었다(χ2(80)=178.34, p<.001, CFI=.87, TLI=.83, RMSEA=.07, SRMR=.08). 넷째, NFCS-SF는 NFCS(r=.86, p<.01) 뿐 아니라 불확실성에 대한 인내력 부족(r=.58, p<.01), 우울(r=.16, p<.05)과 불안(상태 불안, r=.31, p<.01; 특성 불안, r=.29, p<.01) 척도와의 상관이 유의하였다. 이러한 연구결과를 토대로, 연구의 의의 및 한계와 후속 연구를 위한 제안을 토의하였다.



  1. A. W. Kruglanski, D. M. Webster, "Motivated closing of mind: Seizing and freezing", Psychological Review, Vol.103, pp.263-283, 1996. DOI:
  2. D. C. Houghton, R. Grewal, "Please, let's get an answer-any answer: Need for consumer cognitive closure" Psychology & Marketing, Vol.17, No.11, pp.911-934, 2000. DOI:<911: :AID-MAR1>3.0.CO;2-4
  3. A. W. Webster, D. M. Kruglanski, "Individual differences in need for cognitive closure", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.67, pp.261- 271, 1994. DOI:
  4. A. Roets, A. Van Hiel, "Item selection and validation of a brief, 15-item version of the Need for Closure Scale", Personality and Individual Difference, Vol. 50, pp.90-94, 2011. DOI:
  5. H. Atak, M. Syed, F. Cok, "Examination of psychometric properties of the Need for Closure Scale-Short Form among Turkish college students", Archives of Neuropsychiatry, Vol.54, No.2, pp. 175-182, 2017. DOI:
  6. N. O. Rosen, E. Ivanova, B. Knauper, "Differentiating intolerance of uncertainty from three related but distinct constructs", Anxiety and Stress Coping, Vol.27, pp.55-73, 2014. DOI:
  7. A. Roets, B. Soetens, "Need and ability to achieve closure: Relationships with symptoms of psychopathology", Personality and Individual Difference, Vol.46, pp.60-65, 2010. DOI:
  8. R. McKay, R. Langdon, M. Coltheart, "Need for closure, jumping to conclusions, and decisiveness in delusion-prone individuals", The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Vol.194, No.6, pp.422-426, 2006. DOI:
  9. A. L. Comrey, H. B. Lee, A first course in factor analysis. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1992.
  10. J. Nunnally, I. Burstein, Psychometric theory. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1994.
  11. S. H. Kim, The Relationship of Fear of Negative and Positive Evaluation, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Social Anxiety. Unpublished master's thesis, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea, pp.26, 2010.
  12. M. J. Cho, K. H. Kim, "Diagnostic validity of the CES-D(Korean version) in the assessment of DSM-III-R major depression", Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatry Association, Vol.32, No.3, pp.381-399, 1993.
  13. D. W. Hahn, C. H. Lee, K. K. Chon, "Korean adaptation of Spielberger's STAI(K-STAI)", Korean Journal of Health Psychology, Vol.1, pp.1-14, 1996.
  14. L. K. Muthen, B. O. Muthen, Mplus 2.14 [Computer software]. Los Angeles, Author, 2002.
  15. L. Hu, P. M. Bentler, "Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives", Structural Equation Modeling, Vol.6, pp.1-55, 1999. DOI:
  16. D. Hooper, J. Coughlan, M. R. Mullen, "Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit", Electronic Journal of Business Research Method, Vol.6, pp.53-60, 2008. DOI:
  17. M. Mikulincer, Human learned helplessness: A coping perspective. New York, Plenum, 1994.
  18. S. Nolen-Hoeksema, "The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms", Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Vol.109, pp.504-551, 2002. DOI:
  19. R. McKay, R. Langdon, M. Coltheart, "Jumping to delusions? Paranoia, probabilistic reasoning, and need for closure", Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, Vol.12, No.4, pp.362-376, 2007. DOI:
  20. D. Freeman, P. A. Garety, E. Kuipers, S. Colbert, S. Jolley, D. Fowler, Delusions and decision-making style: Use of the Need for Closure Scale, Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol.44, No.8, pp.1147-1158, 2006. DOI:
  21. S. M. Colbert, E. R. Peters, P. A. Garety, "Need for closure and anxiety in delusions: A longitudinal investigation in early psychosis", Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol.44, No.8, pp.1385-1396, 2006. DOI: