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Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Oral Candidiasis

  • Kim, Ji Hoo (Department of Dentistry, Graduate School, Chosun University) ;
  • Ahn, Jong-Mo (Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Chosun University)
  • Received : 2021.05.10
  • Accepted : 2021.05.28
  • Published : 2021.06.30

Abstract

Purpose: Oral candidiasis is the most common fungal infection in the oral cavity which is usually diagnosed from clinical findings. A retrospective study was conducted to identify risk factors for oral candidiasis and to characterize the demographic and clinical features of affected patients. Methods: From January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019, it consisted of 90 oral candidiasis patients diagnosed based on clinical finding and treated with antifungal drugs. As a retrospective study of those people, surveys were conducted on sex, age, systemic disease, a use of dentures, complaints of dry mouth, smoking and alcohol consumption, culture on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium, culture on chromogenic agar (CA) medium and a duration of antifungal treatment. Results: Among 90 selected patients, the male and female ratio was 41:49. Overall, female had a higher infection rate than male in all age groups. In this study, oral candidiasis was not clearly susceptible to dry mouth, smoking or drinking, wearing dentures and association with systemic disease. Among 90 patients with oral candidiasis, 83 had colonies formed on PDA medium and 53 had colonies formed on CA medium. The duration of antifungal treatment was highest between 5 and 8 weeks. In addition, there was statistical significance between the culture results in CA medium and the duration of antifungal treatment. Conclusions: Generally, old age or infants, dry mouth, smoking, a use of dentures and endocrine abnormalities are risk factors to increase oral candidiasis; however, in this study, it was mainly found in the elderly aged 60 or older regardless of sex and the incidence of oral candidiasis was not obviously related with patients with dry mouth, smoking or drinking, denture wearers and endocrine abnormalities. Interestingly, when the fungi were cultured in CA medium, the duration of antifungal treatment was increased.

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