Age Estimation with Panoramic Radiomorphometric Parameters Using Generalized Linear Models

  • Lee, Yeon-Hee (Department of Orofacial Pain and Oral Medicine, Kyung Hee University Dental Hospital) ;
  • An, Jung-Sub (Department of Orthodontics, Seoul National University Dental Hospital)
  • Received : 2021.02.18
  • Accepted : 2021.03.24
  • Published : 2021.06.30


Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the correlation between age and 34 radiomorphometric parameters on panoramic radiographs, and to provide generalized linear models (GLMs) as a non-invasive, inexpensive, and accurate method to the forensic judgement of living individual's age. Methods: The study included 417 digital panoramic radiographs of Korean individuals (178 males and 239 females, mean age: 32.57±17.81 years). Considering the skeletal differences between the sexes, GLMs were obtained separately according to sex, as well as across the total sample. For statistical analysis and to predict the accuracy of the new GLMs, root mean squared error (RMSE) and adjusted R-squared (R2) were calculated. Results: The adjusted R2-values of the developed GLMs in the total sample, and male and female groups were 0.623, 0.637, and 0.660, respectively (p<0.001), while the allowable RMSE values were 8.80, 8.42, and 8.53 years, respectively. In the GLM of the total sample, the most influential predictor of greater age was decreased pulp area in the #36 first molar (beta=-26.52; p<0.01), followed by the presence of periodontitis (beta=10.24; p<0.01). In males, the most influential factor was the presence of periodontitis (beta=9.20; p<0.05), followed by the number of full veneer crowns (beta=2.19; p<0.001). In females, the most influential predictor was the presence of periodontitis (beta=18.10; p<0.001), followed by the tooth area of the #16 first molar (beta=-11.57; p<0.001). Conclusions: We established acceptable GLM for each sex and found out the predictors necessary to age estimation which can be easily found in panoramic radiographs. Our study provides reference that parameters such as the area of tooth and pulp, the number of teeth treated, and the presence of periodontitis should be considered in estimating age.


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