A Method for Making Kimchi Containing Snow Crab in a COVID-19 Environment

  • CHOI, Eun-Mee (Department of Health Care Management, Catholic Kwandong University) ;
  • KWON, Lee-Seung (Department of Health Care Management, Catholic Kwandong University)
  • Received : 2022.03.01
  • Accepted : 2022.03.29
  • Published : 2022.03.30


Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop a kimchi recipe for immunity enhancement using snow crab, which has high food value in the era of COVID-19. Research design, data and methodology: The snow crab kimchi manufacturing method of this study includes the steps of preparing a kimchi seasoning containing snow crab seasoning and chitosan powder. Kimchi seasoning is made by adding 5 parts by weight of crab seasoning and 1 part by weight of chitosan powder to 100 parts by weight of the basic kimchi seasoning prepared by mixing radish, minced garlic, minced ginger, onion juice, anchovy sauce, red pepper powder and glutinous rice paste. Results: It was possible to develop new flavors, possibilities and characteristics of snow crab kimchi by extending the health and functional effects, taste, and preservation period without significantly changing the unique manufacturing method, taste and function of kimchi, including snow crab. Conclusions: Snow crab kimchi was excellent in taste and aroma while enhancing the health functions of the body, such as improving people's immunity. The developed snow crab kimchi manufacturing method can not only improve people's health, but also expand the choice of preference for kimchi taste and shelf life.



  1. Aider, M. (2010). Chitosan application for active bio-based films production and potential in the food industry: Review, LWT -. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 43(2010), 837-842.
  2. Bae, M. S., & Lee, S. C. (2008). Preparation and Characteristics of Kimchi with added Styela clava. Korean Journal Food Cookery Science, 24(5), 573-579.
  3. Beik, K. Y., Kim, M. J., Kim, S. J., Yang, J. H., & Kim, S. D. (2006). Quality Characteristics of Water-Kimchi with Chitosan-Ascorbate and Dietary Effect on Serum Lipids of Rats Fed with High Cholesterol Diet. Korean Journal of Food Preservation, 13(6), 754-761.
  4. Bousquet, J., Czarlewski, W., Zuberbier, T., Mullol, J., Blain, H., Cristol, J.-P., De La Torre, R., Pizarro, L. N., Le Moing, V., Bedbrook, A., Agache, I., Akdis, C. A., Canonica, G. W., Cruz, A. A., Fiocchi, A., Fonseca, J. A., Fonseca, S., Gemicioglu, B., Haahtela, T., Iaccarino, G., Ivancevich, J. C., Jutel, M., Klimek, L., Kraxner, H., .Kuna, P. A., Larenas-Linnemann, D. B, Martineau, A. C., Melen. E. D/. Okamoto, Y. E., Papadopoulos, N. G., Pfaar, O. H., Regateiro, F.J., Reynes, J., Rolland, Y. K., Rouadi, P. L., Samolinski, B. M., Sheikh, A. N., Toppila-Salmi, S., Valiulis, A. O., Choi, H. P., Kim, H. Q., & Anto, J. S. (2021a). Potential Interplay between Nrf2, TRPA1, and TRPV1 in Nutrients for the Control of COVID-19. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 182, 324-338.
  5. Bousquet, J., MoingHubert, V. L., Blain, H., Czarlewski, W., Zuberbier, T., Torre, R., Lozano, N. P., Reynes, J., Bedbrook, A., Cristol, J., Cruz, A. A., Fiocchi, A., Haahtela, T., Iaccarino, G., Klimek, L., Kuna, O., Melen, E., Mullol, J., Samolinski, B., Valiulis, A., & Anto, J. M. (2021b). Efficacy of broccoli and glucoraphanin in COVID-19: From hypothesis to proof-of-concept with three experimental clinical cases. World Allergy Organization Journal, 14, 100498.
  6. Chae, D. J. (2021). Characteristics Quality of Gratin production with Added Red crab meat and Kimchi. Food Service Industry Journal, 17(1), 7-14.
  7. Cheigh, H. S., & Park, K. Y. (1994). Biochemical, Microbiological, and Nutritional Aspects of Kimchi (Korean Fermented Vegetable Products). Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 34(2), 175-203. doi: 10.1080/10408399409527656
  8. Cho, E. J., Choi, J. S., Kim, S. H., Park, K. Y., & Rhee, S. H. (2004). In Vitro Anticancer Effect of Active Compounds from Chinese Cabbage Kimchi. Journal of Korean Association of Cancer Prevention, 9(2), 98-103.
  9. Choi, B. Y., & Cho, S. C. (2015). Preparation of Sun-dried Salt Containing GABA by Co-crystallization of Fermentation Broth and Deep Sea Water. Food Engineering Progress, 19(4), 420-426.
  10. Choi, S. J., Yang, S. Y., & Yoon, K. S. (2021). Lactic acid bacteria starter in combination with sodium chloride controls pathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, ETEC, and EHEC) in kimchi. Food Microbiology, 100, December, 103868.
  11. Choi, S. Y., Beuchat, L. R., Perkins, L. M., & Nakayama, T. (1994). Fermentation and sensory characteristics of kimchi containing potassium chloride as a partial replacement for sodium chloride. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 21(4), 335-340. doi: 10.1016/0168-1605(94)90063-9
  12. Das, G., Heredia, B., Pereira, M. L., Coy-Barrera, E., Marlene, S., Oliveira, R. Gutierrez-Grijalva, E. P., Cabanillas-Bojorquez, L. A., Shin, H. S., & Patra, J. K. (2021). Korean traditional foods as antiviral and respiratory disease prevention and treatments: A detailed review. Trends in Food Science & Technology, Available online, 30 July.
  13. Dash, M., Chiellini, F., & Ottenbrite, R. M. (2011). Chitosan-A versatile semi-synthetic polymer in biomedical applications. Progress in Polymer Science, 36(2011), 981-101.doi: 10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2011.02.001
  14. Delali, K. I., Chen, O., Wang, W., Yi, L., Deng L., & Zeng, K. (2021). Evaluation of yeast isolates from kimchi with antagonistic activity against green mold in citrus and elucidating the action mechanisms of three yeast: P. kudriavzevii, K. marxianus, and Y. lipolytica. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 176, June, 111495.
  15. Dutta, P. K., Dutta, J., & Tripathi, V. S. (2004). Chitin and chitosan: chemistry, properties and applications. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 63(2004), 20-31.
  16. Dutta, P. K., Tripathi, S., & Mehrotra, G. K. (2009). Perspectives for chitosan based anti-microbial films in food applications. Food Chemistry, 114(2009), 1173-1182. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.11.047
  17. Hahn, Y. S. (2005). Preparation and Quality Evaluation of Kimchi using Mineral Water in Sea Rock. The East Asian Society of Dietary Life, 15(1), 119-125.
  18. Hongu, N., Kim, A. S., Suzuki, A., Wilson, H., Tsui, K. C., & Park, S. M. (2017). Korean kimchi: promoting healthy meals through cultural tradition. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 4(3), 172-180. doi: 10.1016/j.jef.2017.08.005
  19. Jang, D. J., Chung, K. R., Yang, H. J., Kim, K. S., & Kwon, D. Y. (2015). Discussion on the origin of kimchi, representative of Korean unique fermented vegetables. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 2, 126-136. doi: 10.1016/j.jef.2015.08.005
  20. Jang, M. S., Jung K. E., Yun, J. U., & Nam, K. H. (2016). Production and fermentation characteristics of seafood kimchi started with Leuconostoc mesenteriodes SK-1 isolated from octopus baechu kimchi. Korean Journal of Food Preservation, 23(7), 1050-1057. doi: 10.11002/KJFP.2016.23.7.1050
  21. Jang, M. S., Park, H. Y., Nam, K. H., & Nam, H. G. (2013). Nutrient Composition and Sensory Characteristics of Seokbakji Supplemented with Seafood. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 45(5), 605-612. doi: 10.9721/KJFST.2013.45.5.605
  22. Jang, M. S., Park, H. Y., Park, J. I., Byun, H. S., Kim, Y. K., & Yoon, H. D. (2011). Analysis of Nutrient Composition of Baechu Kimchi (Chinese Cabbage Kimchi) with Seafood. Korean Journal of Food Preservation, 8(4), 535-545.
  23. Jang, S. Y., & Jeong, Y. J. (2005). Effect of Chitosan-Liquid Calcium Addition on the Quality of Kimchi during Fermentation. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 34(5), 715-720. doi: 10.3746/JKFN.2005.34.5.715
  24. Jia, Z. S., & Shen, D. F. (2002). Effect of reaction temperature and reaction time on the preparation of low-molecular-weight chitosan using phosphoric acid. Carbohydrate Polymers, 49, 393-396. doi: 10.1016/S0144-8617(02)00026-7
  25. Jung, B. M., Jung, S. J., & Kim, E. S. (2010). Quality Characteristics and Storage Properties of Gat Kimchi added with Oyster Shell Powder and Salicornia herbacea Powder. Korean Journal of Food & Cookery Science, 26(2), 188-197.
  26. Jung, K. E., Hong, S. H., Kim, M. J., Han, J. S., Jang, M. S., & Song, Y. O. (2015). Anti-atherogenic effects of Korean cabbage kimchi with added short arm octopus. Food Science and Biotechnology, 24, 249-255. doi: 10.1007/s10068-015-0033-z
  27. Jung, S. O., Oh, H. H., Chen, S. H., Choi, E. J., Kim, B. M., & Cho, S. H. (2003). Standardization of Preparation of Chinese Cabbage Kimchi I. Effects of Dry Salting of Method Salt Content on the Texture of Kimchi. The Korean Journal of Food and Nutrition, 16(4), 423-429.
  28. Kim, C. Y., & Carter, D. (2018). Myths of the Health-Giving Properties of Korean Cuisine. Globalized Eating Cultures, 11(September), 91-106.
  29. Kim, J. H., & Park, G. S. (2014). Quality Characteristics of Kimchi Added with Blue Crab. The Korean Journal of Culinary Research, 20(2), 246-259.
  30. Kim, K. H., & Cho, H. S. (2008). Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Skate (Raja kenojei) Kimchi on the Market. Korean Journal Food Culture, 23(2), 235-242.
  31. Kim, K. P., Ban, H. J., & Han, J. H. (2015). Analysis on the Status and Consciousness of CODEX Standards. Korean Journal of Agricultural Management and Policy, 42(2), 272-294.
  32. Kim, M. J., Kim, M. H., & Kim, S. D. (2003), Effect of Water Extracts of Shellfish Shell on Fermentation and Calcium Content of Kimchi. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 32(2), 161-166. doi: 10.3746/JKFN.2003.32.2.161
  33. Kim, S. D., Oh, S. H., & Jung, Y. K. (2007). Fermentation and Quality Characteristics of Kwamaegi added Kimchi. Korean Journal of Food Preservation, 14(5), 526-530.
  34. Kim, S. H., Wishnok, J. S., & Tannenbaum, S. R. (1985). Formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine in Korean seafood sauce. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 33(1), 17-19. doi: 10.1021/jf00061a005
  35. Kim, W. J., Ku, K. H., & Cho, H. O. (1988). Changes in Some Physical Properties of Kimchi during Salting and Fermentation. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 20(4), 483-487.
  36. Knorr, D. (1991). Recovery and Utilization of Chitin and Chitosan in Food Processing Waste Management. Food Technology, 45, 114-122.
  37. Kong, C. S., Bahn, Y. E., Kim, B. K., Lee, K. Y., & Park, K. Y. (2010). Antiproliferative effect of chitosan-added kimchi in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells. Journal of medicinal food, 13(1), 6-12. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2009.1213
  38. Koo, O. K., Lee, S. J., Chung, K. R., Jang, D. J., Yang, H. J., & Kwon, D. Y. (2016). Korean traditional fermented fish products: Jeotgal. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 3, 107-116. doi: 10.1016/j.jef.2016.06.004
  39. Ku, H. S., Noh, J. S., Yun, Y. R., Kim, H. J., Kwon, M. J., Cheigh, H. S., & Song, Y. O. (2007a). Weight Reduction and Lipid Lowering Effects of Sea Tangle Added Korean Cabbage Kimchi. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 36(9), 1140-1147. doi: 10.3746/JKFN.2007.36.9.1140
  40. Ku, H. S., Noh, J. S., Yun, Y. R., Kim, H. J., Kwon, M. J., Cheigh, H. S., & Song, Y. O. (2007b). Antioxidant Effects of Sea Tangle Added Korean Cabbage Kimchi in Vitro and in Vivo. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 36(12), 1497-1502. doi: 10.3746/JKFN.2007.36.12.1497
  41. Kwon, D. Y., Jang, D. J., Yang, H. J., & Chung, K. R. (2014). History of Korean gochu, gochujang, and kimchi. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 1, 3-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jef.2014.11.003
  42. Kwon, L. S. (2021). Kimchi Comprising Chionoecetes Opilio and Manufacturing Method Thereof. Korea Institute of Patent Information. Patent Application Number, 10-2021-0043771, (2021.04.05).
  43. Kwon, N. J., & Ahn, J. H. (2012). Science Inquiry Strategy about Kimchi's Fermentation and Application in Creative Experiential Activity. The Korean Society for Social Science, 6(2), 135-146.
  44. Lee, C. H. (1997). Lactic acid fermented foods and their benefits in Asia. Food Control, 8(5/6), 259-269. doi: 10.1016/S0956-7135(97)00015-7
  45. Lee, G. D., Lee, M. H., Kim, S. K., Lee, H. A., & Kim, M. L. (2003). Changes of Quality Characteristics of Radishes Salted with Deep Seawater Salt. Korean Journal of Food Preservation, 10(2), 182-186.
  46. Lee, H. Y., Park, J. E., & Han, Y. S. (2003). Effect of Powder-type Dried Alaska Pollack Addition on the Quality of Kimchi. Korean Journal of Food and Cookery Science, 19(2), 254-262.
  47. Lee, H., Yoon, H., Ji, Y., Kim, H., Park, H., Lee, J., Shin, H., & Holzapfel, W. (2011) Functional properties of Lacto bacillus strains isolated from Kimchi. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 145(1), 155-161. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.12.003
  48. Lee, M. A., Seo, H. Y., Yang, J. H., & Jang, M. S. (2013). Effect of Squid and Octopus on the Quality Characteristics of Kimchi during Fermentation. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 45(12), 2004-2011.
  49. Lee, S. H., Choi, D. J., & Kim, J. G. (2003). The Effect of Chitosan Addition on Soybean Leaf Kimchi fermentation. Korean Journal of Food Preservation, 10(4), 517-521.
  50. Lee, W. J., Shin, T., Ko, S. H., & Oh, H. (2010). Control of dongchimi fermentation with chitosan de-acetylated by alkali treatment to prevent over-ripening. Journal of Food Science, 75(5), M308-16. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01643.x
  51. Lee, Y. C. (1991). Kimchi: The famous fermented vegetable products in kimchi. Food Reviews International, 7(4), 399-415. doi: 10.1080/87559129109540920
  52. Lee, Y. K., Shin, K. O., No, H. K., & Kim, S. D. (2005). Quality Characteristics of Mul-kimchi Prepared Using Eastern Deep Seawater Added with Chitosan-Ascorbate. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 34(9), 1450-1458. doi: 10.3746/JKFN.2005.34.9.1450
  53. Lim, J. H., Jung, J. H., Kim, D. S., Kim, Y. M., & Kim, B. M. (2014). Comparison of quality changes in brined cabbage with deep sea water salt and a commercial brined cabbage product. Korean Journal of Food Preservation, 21(5), 676-687. doi: 10.11002/KJFP.2014.21.5.676
  54. Mah, J. H., Lee, J. H., Jin, Y. H., & Lee, J. H. (2017). Biogenic amine production in Gat Kimchi, a Korean traditional fermented leaf mustard. Journal of Food Processing & Technology,19th International Conference on Food Processing & Technology, October, 23-25.
  55. Mannaa, M., Seo, Y. S., & Park, I. Y. (2019). Effect of Seafood (Gizzard Shad) Supplementation on the Chemical Composition and Microbial Dynamics of Radish Kimchi during Fermentation. Scientific Reports, 9, 17693.
  56. Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. (2021). Korea Food Additives Code. June 29. Notice No. 2021-54.
  57. Mizan, F. R., Jahid, I. K., & Ha, S. D. (2015). Microbial biofilms in seafood: a food-hygiene challenge. Food Microbiology, 49(Aug), 41-55. doi: 10.1016/
  58. Nam, H. G., Jang, M. S., Seo, K. C., Nam, K. H., & Park, H. Y. (2013). Changes in the taste compounds of Kimchi with seafood added during its fermentation. Korean Journal of Food Preservation, 20(3), 404-418. doi: 10.11002/KJFP.2013.20.3.404
  59. Oh, S. K., Kim, K. W., Park, W. M., Kim, N. H., Bae, S. O., & Choi, M. R. (2015). Quality Characteristics of Dolsan Leaf Mustard Kimchi Added with Seasoning of Sea tangle and Lentinus edodes. Korean Journal of Life Science, 25(5), 557-567.
  60. Pandit, A., Deshpande, C., Patil, S., Jain, R., & Dandekar, P. (2020). Mechanistic insights into controlled de-polymerization of Chitosan using H-Mordenite. Carbohydrate Polymers, 230, 115600-115608.
  61. Park, I. M., Song, H. S., & Cho, S. S. (2018). Physicochemical characteristics of radish kimchi supplemented with seafood (gizzard shad) during fermentation. Korean Journal Food Science Technology, 50(6), 601-607. doi: 10.9721/KJFST.2018.50.6.601
  62. Park, M. Y. (2020). Mediating Effect of Psychological Empowerment on the Causal Relationship between High-performance Work System and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Social Welfare Organizations. International Journal of Advanced Culture Technology, 8(1), 152-156. doi: 10.17703/IJACT.2020.8.1.152
  63. Park, S. Y., Lim, H. K., Park, S. G., & Cho, M. J. (2012). Quality and Preference Changes Red Sea Cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) Kimchi during Storage Period. Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry, 55(2), 135-140. doi: 10.3839/jabc.2011.071
  64. Park, Y. K., Lee, J. H., & Mah, J. H. (2019). Occurrence and Reduction of Biogenic Amines in Kimchi and Korean Fermented Seafood Products. Foods, 8(11), 547;
  65. Pillai, C. K. S., Paul, W., & Sharma, C. P. (2009). Chitin and chitosan polymers: chemistry, solubility and fiber formation. Progress in Polymer Science, 34, 641-678. doi: 10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2009.04.001
  66. Raymond, J. (2013). World's Healthiest Foods: Kimchi (Korea). Health, [Accessed 2013 June 26].,,20410300,00.html.
  67. Seo, J. S., Bang, B. H., & Jeong, E. J. (2004). Studies on the Prolonging of Kimchi Fermentation by Adding Chitosan. The Korean Journal of Food and Nutrition, 17(1), 60-65.
  68. Seo, Y. T. (2008). Manufacturing method of kimchi using snow crap. Korea Institute of Patent Information. Patent Registration Number, 1008347030000, (2008.05.27.).
  69. Shahidi, F., Arachchi, J. K. V., & Jeon, Y. J. (1999). Food applications of chitin and chitosans. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 10, 37-51. doi: 10.1016/S0924-2244(99)00017-5
  70. Shin, S. B., Oh, E. G., Yu, H. S., Lee, H. J., Kim, J. H, Park, K. B., Kwon, J. Y., Singla, A. K., & Chawla, M. (2001). Chitosan: some pharmaceutical and biological aspects - an update. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 53(8), 1047-1067. doi: 10.1211/0022357011776441
  71. Son, K. T. (2010). Inactivation of a Noro virus Surrogate (Feline Calicivirus) during the Ripening of Oyster Kimchi. Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 43(5), 415-420. doi: 10.5657/KFAS.2010.43.5.415
  72. Song M. R., & Lee, K. J. (2008). Salinity and Consumption Patterns of Kimchi and Soup.Stew in Jeonju Area. Korean Journal of Food & Cookery Science, 24(1), 84-91.
  73. Sung, J. M. & Choi, H. Y. (2009). Effects of Alaska Pollack Addition on the Quality of Kimchi (Korean salted cabbage). Korean Journal of Food Preservation, 16(5), 772-781.
  74. Toushik, S. H., Kim, K. J., Ashrafudoulla, M., Mizan, M. F. R., Roy, P. K., Nahar, S., Kim, Y. S., & Ha, S. D. (2021). Korean kimchi-derived lactic acid bacteria inhibit foodborne pathogenic biofilm growth on seafood and food processing surface materials. Food Control, 129(November), 108276.
  75. Wang, D., Song, R., Liu, Y., Ren, J., Zhang, Y., Wang, T., & Qu, G. (2021). Simultaneous production of low molecular weight chitosan and reducing sugar via high molecular chitosan de-polymerization by surface discharge plasma. Journal of Cleaner Production, 316(2021), 128295.
  77. Woo, M. J., Choi, J. R., Kim, M. J., Jang, M. S., Cho, E. J., & Song, Y. O. (2012). Physicochemical Characteristics of Seafood-Added Kimchi during Fermentation and Its Sensory Properties. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 41(12), 1771-1777. doi: 10.3746/JKFN.2012.41.12.1771
  78. World Institute of Kimchi. (2016). Kimchi Sensory Test Manual, 2016, December.