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Effects of Processing of Starter Diets on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Biochemical Parameters and Body Measurements of Brown Swiss Dairy Calves
Nejad, J. Ghassemi;Torbatinejad, N.;Naserian, A.A.;Kumar, S.;Kim, J.D.;Song, Y.H.;Ra, C.S.;Sung, K.I.;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 25, iss. 7, 2012, pp. 980-987
In order to investigate the effect of physical forms of starter diets on performance, weaning age, nutrient digestibility and rumen biochemical factors, 24 female of neonatal Brown Swiss calves (average body weight of
) were randomly assigned to three treatments. Dietary treatments were mashed (MS), pelleted (PS), and texturized (TS) starter using 8 calves from birth till 90 days of age in each treatment. Diets were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous with 21% crude protein. Based on the experimental results, calves that received PS and TS diets, had significant higher average daily gain (ADG) than those receiving MS (p<0.01). Dry matter intake in calves fed PS and TS was greater than calves fed MS (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference in feed efficiency. Treatments had no effect on initiation of rumination. Weaning age of calves in MS was longer than the other two treatments (p<0.05). Crude protein and organic matter digestibility in MS treated calves were lower than other treatments (p<0.05). No differences were observed in neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ash digestibility among treatments (p>0.05). Ruminal pH was higher (p<0.01) in MS than the other groups, but ruminal ammonia (g/dl) concentration was not different among the treatments. Body measurements such as body length, pin width, hip width, pin to hip length, size of metacarpus and metatarsus bones, hip height, wither height, stomach size and heart girth were not significantly different among the treatments. Overall, it is concluded that starter diets in the form of pellet and texture can improve performance in neonatal Brown Swiss calves compared to the mashed form.
Effect of Medium-chain Triglyceride (MCT) on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics in Weanling Pigs
Hong, S.M.;Hwang, J.H.;Kim, I.H.;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 25, iss. 7, 2012, pp. 1003-1008
One hundred and twenty weanling pigs in experiment 1 (Exp. 1) (
; 21 d of age) and Exp. 2 (
; 28 d of age) were used in two 42-d and 35-d experiments to evaluate the effect of medium-chain-triglyceride (MCT) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and blood profile. In both of Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, the same dietary treatments were utilized as follows : i) negative control (NC), ii) positive control (PC), NC+antibiotics (40 mg/kg Tiamulin, 110 mg/kg Tylosin, and 10 mg/kg Enramycin, iii) MCT3, NC+0.32% (phase 1, 2 and 3) MCT, and iv) MCT5, NC+0.55% (phase 1), 0.32% (phase 2 and 3) MCT. In Exp. 1, the pigs fed MCT5 diets had higher (p<0.05) ADG compared to NC treatment during the first 2 wk. From d 15 to 28, the ATTD of energy was improved (p<0.05) by MCT3 compared to the PC treatment. No effect has been observed on the blood profiles [red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), immunoglobulin-G (IgG), lymphocyte concentration] measured in this study. In Exp. 2, the ADG were increased (p<0.05) by the MCT5 treatment than the PC treatment from d 0 to 14. Pigs fed PC treatment diet had lower ADFI (p<0.05) and better FCR (p<0.05) than NC treatment, whereas no differences were shown between MCT treatments and NC or PC treatment from d 15 to 35 and overall phase. The ATTD of DM and nitrogen were improved (p<0.05) by the effect of MCT5 related to the NC and PC treatment at the end of 2nd and 5th wk. The pigs fed MCT3 had higher (p<0.05) energy digestibility than PC treatment. No effects were seen in the blood profiles we measured (WBC, RBC, lymphocyte and immunoglobulin-G). In conclusion, the addition of MCT in the weanling pigs diet can improve the ADG and digestibility during the earlier period (first 2 wks), but had little effect on the blood characteristics.
Effects of Bacteriophage Supplementation on Egg Performance, Egg Quality, Excreta Microflora, and Moisture Content in Laying Hens
Zhao, P.Y.;Baek, H.Y.;Kim, I.H.;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 25, iss. 7, 2012, pp. 1015-1020
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of bacteriophage supplementation on egg performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, and moisture content in laying hens. A total of 288 Hy-line brown commercial laying hens (36-wk-old) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments in this 6-wk trial and dietary treatments included: i) CON, basal diet; ii) T1, CON+0.020% bacteriophage; iii) T2, CON+0.035% bacteriophage; iv) T3, CON+0.050% bacteriophage. There were 6 replicates for each treatment with 6 adjacent cages (2 hens/cage). Laying hens in T2 and T3 treatments had higher (p<0.05) egg production than those in CON and T1 treatments during wk 0 to 3. In addition, egg production in T1, T2, and T3 treatments was increased (p<0.05) compared with that in CON treatment during wk 4 to 6. At wk 4 and 5, birds in T2 group had higher (p<0.05) HU than those in CON. In addition, at wk 5 and 6, HU in birds fed T1 and T3 diets was greater (p<0.05) than those fed CON diet. E. coli and Salmonella spp. concentrations in excreta were decreased (p<0.05) by T1, T2, and T3 treatments. However, egg weight, egg shell color, yolk height, yolk color unit, egg shell strength, egg shell thickness, egg gravity, and excreta moisture content were not influenced by dietary treatments during the entire experimental period. In conclusion, bacteriophage supplementation has beneficial effects on egg production, egg albumen, and excreta microflora concentration in laying hens.
Phylogeography and Population Genetic Structure of Amur Grayling Thymallus grubii in the Amur Basin
Ma, Bo;Lui, Tingting;Zhang, Ying;Chen, Jinping;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 25, iss. 7, 2012, pp. 935-944
Amur grayling, Thymallus grubii, is an important economic cold freshwater fish originally found in the Amur basin. Currently, suffering from loss of habitat and shrinking population size, T. grubii is restricted to the mountain river branches of the Amur basin. In order to assess the genetic diversity, population genetic structure and infer the evolutionary history within the species, we analysised the whole mitochondrial DNA control region (CR) of 95 individuals from 10 rivers in China, as well as 12 individuals from Ingoda/Onon and Bureya River throughout its distribution area. A total of 64 variable sites were observed and 45 haplotypes were identified excluding sites with gaps/missing data. Phylogenetic analysis was able to confidently predict two subclade topologies well supported by maximum-parsimony and Bayesian methods. However, basal branching patterns cannot be unambiguously estimated. Haplotypes from the mitochondrial clades displayed local homogeneity, implying a strong population structure within T. grubii. Analysis of molecular variance detected significant differences among the different geographical rivers, suggesting that T. grubii in each river should be managed and conserved separately.
In vitro-growth and Gene Expression of Porcine Preantral Follicles Retrieved by Different Protocols
Ahn, J.I.;Lee, S.T.;Park, J.H.;Kim, J.Y.;Park, J.H.;Choi, J.K.;Lee, G.;Lee, E.S.;Lim, J.M.;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 25, iss. 7, 2012, pp. 950-955
This study was conducted to determine how the isolation method of the porcine preantral follicles influenced the following follicular growth in vitro. Mechanical and enzymatical isolations were used for retrieving the follicles from prepubertal porcine ovaries, and in vitro-growth of the follicles and the expression of folliculogenesis-related genes were subsequently monitored. The enzymatic retrieval with collagenase treatment returned more follicles than the mechanical retrieval, while the percentage of morphologically normal follicles was higher with mechanical retrieval than with enzymatic retrieval. After 4 days of culture, mechanically retrieved, preantral follicles yielded more follicles with normal morphology than enzymatically retrieved follicles, which resulted in improved follicular growth. The mRNA expression of FSHR, LHR Cx43, DNMT1 and FGFR2 genes was significantly higher after culture of the follicles retrieved mechanically. These results suggest that mechanical isolation is a better method of isolating porcine preantral follicles that will develop into competent oocytes in in vitro culture.
Substantial Effect of Melanin Influencing Factors on In vitro Melanogenesis in Muzzle Melanocytes of Differently Colored Hanwoo
Amna, Touseef;Park, Kyoung-Mi;Cho, In-Kyung;Choi, Tae-Jeong;Lee, Seung-Soo;Seo, Kang-Seok;Hwang, In-Ho;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 25, iss. 7, 2012, pp. 1029-1037
The present study was designed to investigate the effect of
-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (
-MSH), nitric oxide (NO) and L-cysteine on melanin production and expression of related genes MC1R, Tyr, Tyrp-1 and Tyrp-2 in muzzle melanocytes of differently colored three native Hanwoo cattle. Muzzle samples were taken from black, brindle and brown Hanwoo and purified melanocytes were cultured with
-MSH, nitric oxide and L-cysteine at 100 nM,
and 0.07 mg/ml of media respectively. The amounts of total melanin, eumelanin and mRNA expression at Tyr, Tyrp-1, Tyrp-2 and MC1R levels were quantified.
-MSH and nitric oxide significantly increased (p<0.05) the amount of total melanin in black and brindle whereas eumelanin production in brown Hanwoo muzzle melanocytes. On the contrary, L-cysteine greatly (p<0.05) depressed the eumelanin production in black color but increased in brown. Simultaneously, up regulation of Tyr by nitric oxide and
-MSH and down regulation of Tyr, Tyrp-2 and MC1R genes by L-cysteine were observed in muzzle melanocytes of all three phenotypes. The results of this study revealed nitric oxide and
-MSH contribute hyper-pigmentation by enhancing eumelanogenesis whereas L-cysteine contributes to pheomelanin production in different colored Hanwoo muzzle melanocytes.
Spatial Heterogeneity of Bacteria: Evidence from Hot Composts by Culture-independent Analysis
Guo, Yan;Zhang, Jinliang;Deng, Changyan;Zhu, Nengwu;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 25, iss. 7, 2012, pp. 1045-1054
The phylogenetic diversity of the bacteria in hot composting samples collected from three spatial locations was investigated by molecular tools in order to determine the influence of gradient effect on bacterial communities during the thermophilic phase of composting swine manure with rice straw. Total microbial DNA was extracted and bacterial near full-length 16S rRNA genes were subsequently amplified, cloned, restriction fragment length polymorphism-screened and sequenced. The superstratum sample had the highest microbial diversity among the three samples which was possibly related to the surrounding conditions of the sample resulting from the location. The results showed that the sequences related to Bacillus sp. were most common in the composts. In superstratum sample, 45 clones (33%) and 36 clones (27%) were affiliated with the Bacillus sp. and Clostridium sp., respectively; 74 clones (58%) were affiliated with the Clostridium sp. in the middle-level sample; 52 clones (40%) and 29 clones (23%) were affiliated with the Clostridium sp. and Bacillus sp. in substrate sample, respectively. It indicated that the microbial diversity and community in the samples were different for each sampling site, and different locations of the same pile often contained distinct and different microbial communities.
Effects of Protein Level and Mangosteen Peel Pellets (Mago-pel) in Concentrate Diets on Rumen Fermentation and Milk Production in Lactating Dairy Crossbreds
Norrapoke, T.;Wanapat, M.;Wanapat, S.;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 25, iss. 7, 2012, pp. 971-979
Four, lactating dairy crossbreds (
Native Zebu cattle) were randomly assigned according to a
factorial arrangement (two protein levels and two levels of mangosteen peel pellets (Mago-pel)) in a
Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. All cows received concentrate at a proportion of 1 kg concentrate per 2 kg of milk yield, and urea-treated 5% rice straw (UTRS) was given ad libitum. It was found that total dry matter intakes, nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and
-N concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) by treatments. Concentrations of ruminal pH and
-N were not affected by dietary treatments although the concentration of BUN varied significantly (p<0.05) between protein levels (p<0.05). The populations of rumen bacteria and fungal zoospores did not differ among treatments (p>0.05); however, the population of protozoa was decreased (p<0.05) when cows received Mago-pel supplementation. The composition of the population of bacteria, identified by real-time PCR technique, including total bacteria, methanogens, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus was similar (p>0.05) among dietary treatments (p>0.05); however, copy numbers of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was increased when protein level increased (p<0.05). Microbial protein synthesis, in terms of both quantity and efficiency, was enriched by Mago-pel supplementation. Milk yield was greatest in cows fed UTRS based diets with concentrate containing protein at 16% CP with Mago-pel, but were lowest without Mago-pel (p<0.05). In addition, protein level and supplementation of Mago-pel did not affect (p>0.05) milk composition except solids-not-fat which was higher in cows fed the diet with 19% CP. Therefore, feeding a concentrate containing 16% CP together with 300 g/hd/d Mago-pel supplementation results in changes in rumen fermentation and microbial population and improvements in milk production in lactating dairy crossbreds fed on UTRS.
Identification of the SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) for Fatty Acid Composition Associated with Beef Flavor-related FABP4 (Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4) in Korean Cattle
Oh, Dong-Yep;Lee, Yoon-Seok;La, Boo-Mi;Yeo, Jung-Sou;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 25, iss. 7, 2012, pp. 913-920
In this study, we investigated the relationship between unsaturated fatty acids influencing beef flavor and four types of SNPs (c.280A>G, c.388G>A, c.408G>C and c.456A>G) located at exon 2, 3 and 4 of the FABP4 gene, which is a fatty acid binding protein 4 in Korean cattle (n
Expression Profiles of the Insulin-like Growth Factor System Components in Liver Tissue during Embryonic and Postnatal Growth of Erhualian and Yorkshire Reciprocal Cross F
Pan, Zengxiang;Zhang, Junlei;Zhang, Jinbi;Zhou, Bo;Chen, Jie;Jiang, Zhihua;Liu, Honglin;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 25, iss. 7, 2012, pp. 903-912
In Erhualian and Yorkshire reciprocal cross
pig populations, we examined the mRNA expression characteristic of liver-derived IGF-1, IGF-1R, IGF-2, IGF-2R and IGFBP-3 during the embryonic and postnatal developmental periods (E50, E70, E90, D1, D20, D70, D120 and D180). Our results demonstrated that the IGF-system genes mRNA levels exhibited an ontogenetic expression pattern, which was potentially associated with the porcine embryonic development, postnatal growth, organogenesis and even the initiation and acceleration of puberty. The expression pattern of IGF-system genes showed variation in the reciprocal cross (
YE and EY pigs). This study also involved the expression features of imprinted genes IGF-2 and IGF-2R. The parent-of-origin effect of imprinted genes was reflected by their differential expression between the reciprocal crosses populations. The correlation analysis also indicated that the regulatory network and mechanisms involved in the IGF system were a complex issue that needs to be more fully explored. A better understanding of IGF system components and their interactive mechanisms will enable researchers to gain insights not only into animal organogenesis but also into somatic growth development and even reproduction.
Effect of Age and Caponization on Blood Parameters and Bone Development of Male Native Chickens in Taiwan
Lin, Cheng-Yung;Hsu, Jenn-Chung;Wan, Tien-Chun;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 25, iss. 7, 2012, pp. 994-1002
An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of age and caponization on the development blood and bone characteristics development in male country chickens in Taiwan. A total of two hundred 8-wk-old LRI native chicken cockerels, Taishi meat No.13 from LRI-COA, were used as experimental animals. Cockerels were surgically caponized at 8 wks of age. Twelve birds in each group were bled and dressed from 8 wks to 35 wks of age at 1 to 5 wk intervals. The results indicated that the plasma testosterone concentration was significantly (p<0.05) lower in capons after 12 wks of age (caponized treatment after 4 wks) than that of the intact males. The relative tibia weight, bone breaking strength, cortical thickness, bone ash, bone calcium, bone phosphorus and bone magnesium contents were significantly (p<0.05) higher in intact males, while capons had higher (p<0.05) plasma ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase concentration. The plasma testosterone concentration, relative tibia weight, tibia length, breaking strength, cortical thickness, bone ash, calcium, and phosphorus contents of intact males chickens increased significantly (p<0.05) with the advance of age. In addition, the relative tibia weight of capons peaked at 18 wks of age, and declined at 35 wks of age. The bone ash, calcium and phosphorus content increased most after 14 wks of age in male native chickens in Taiwan. Also, tibia length and cortical thickness peaked at 22 wks of age. However, the peak of bone strength was found at 26 wks of age. These findings support the assertion that androgens can directly influence bone composition fluxes in male chickens. Caponization caused a significant increase in bone loss at 4 wks post treatment, which reflected bone cell damage, and demonstrated reductions in the relative tibia weight, breaking strength, cortical thickness, bone ash, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium contents, and increases in plasma ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase concentration.
Effect of Dietary L-ascorbic Acid (L-AA) on Production Performance, Egg Quality Traits and Fertility in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) at Low Ambient Temperature
Shit, N.;Singh, R.P.;Sastry, K.V.H.;Agarwal, R.;Singh, R.;Pandey, N.K.;Mohan, J.;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 25, iss. 7, 2012, pp. 1009-1014
Environmental stress boosts the levels of stress hormones and accelerates energy expenditure which subsequently imbalance the body`s homeostasis. L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) has been recognized to mitigate the negative impact of environmental stress on production performances in birds. The present investigation was carried out to elucidate the effect of different dietary levels of L-AA on production performance, egg quality traits and fertility in Japanese quail at low ambient temperature. Sixty matured females (15 wks) were equally divided into three groups (20/group) based on the different dietary levels of L-AA (0, 250 and 500 ppm) and coupled with an equal number of males (1:1) obtained from the same hatch. They were managed in uniform husbandry conditions without restriction of feed and water at 14 h photo-schedule. Except for feed efficiency, body weight change, feed consumption and hen-day egg production were recorded highest in 500 ppm L-AA supplemented groups. Among the all egg quality traits studied, only specific gravity, shell weight and thickness differed significantly (p<0.05) in the present study. Fertility was improved significantly (
) to a dose dependent manner of L-AA. The findings of the present study concluded that dietary L-AA can be a caring management practice at least in part to alleviate the adverse effect of cold induced stress on production performance in Japanese quail.
Cytokines Expression and Nitric Oxide Production under Induced Infection to Salmonella Typhimurium in Chicken Lines Divergently Selected for Cutaneous Hypersensitivity
Singh, Rani;Jain, Preeti;Pandey, N.K.;Saxena, V.K.;Saxena, M.;Singh, K.B.;Ahmed, K.A.;Singh, R.P.;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 25, iss. 7, 2012, pp. 1038-1044
In the present study, the impact of Salmonella Typhimurium on cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was investigated in 5 week-old immuno divergent broiler lines selected for the high and low response to phytohemagglutinin-P. The immune response was assessed in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) induced with Salmonella Typhimurium at different time intervals (0 h, 0.5 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h). The differential mRNA expression patterns of IFN-
, IL-2 and iNOS were evaluated by quantitative real time PCR. In-vitro production of nitric oxide (NO) was also estimated in the culture supernatant and correlated with iNOS mRNA expression. Present study showed higher production of NO in the high cell-mediated line (HCMI) as compared to the low cell-mediated line (LCMI) upon stimulation with Salmonella Typhimurium. Correspondingly, higher mRNA expression of iNOS and IFN-
were observed in high response birds (HCMI); but IL-2 was down regulated in this line compared to the low response birds (LCMI). Significantly (p<0.05) higher expression of iNOS, IFN-
and higher production of NO in high line indicated that the selection for PHA-P response might be employed for increasing the immune competence against Salmonella Typhimurium in chicken flocks.
Effects of Ruminal Infusion of Garlic Oil on Fermentation Dynamics, Fatty Acid Profile and Abundance of Bacteria Involved in Biohydrogenation in Rumen of Goats
Zhu, Zhi;Mao, Shengyong;Zhu, Weiyun;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 25, iss. 7, 2012, pp. 962-970
This study aimed to investigate the effects of ruminal infusion of garlic oil (GO) on fermentation dynamics, fatty acid (FA) profile, and abundance of bacteria involved in biohydrogenation in the rumen. Six wethers fitted with ruminal fistula were assigned to two groups for cross-over design with a 14-d interval. Each 30-d experimental period consisted of a 27-d adaptation and a 3-d sample collection. Goats were fed a basal diet without (control) or with GO ruminal infusion (0.8 g/d). Ruminal contents collected before (0 h) and at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h after morning feeding were used for fermentation analysis, and 0 h samples were further used for FA determination and DNA extraction. Garlic oil had no influence on dry matter intakes of concentrate and hay. During ruminal fermentation, GO had no effects on total VFA concentration and individual VFA molar proportions, whereas GO increased the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and microbial crude protein (p<0.05). Compared with control, GO group took a longer time for total VFA concentration and propionate molar proportion to reach their respective maxima after morning feeding. The ratio of acetate to propionate in control reduced sharply after morning feeding, whereas it remained relatively stable in GO group. Fatty acid analysis showed that GO reduced saturated FA proportion (p<0.05), while increasing the proportions of C18, t11-18:1 (TVA), c9,t11-conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA), t10,c12-CLA, and polyunsaturated FA (p<0.05). The values of TVA/(c9,t11-CLA+TVA) and C18:0/(TVA+C18:0) were reduced by GO (p<0.05). Real-time PCR showed that GO tended to reduce Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus abundance (p
The Effect of Level of Wheat Inclusion in Diets for Growing and Finishing Pigs on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Gastric Ulceration
Ball, M.E.E.;Magowan, E.;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 25, iss. 7, 2012, pp. 988-993
Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 700 g/kg cereal with decreasing levels of wheat:barley inclusion. Diet 1 contained 700 g/kg wheat, diet 2 contained 600 g/kg wheat and 100 g/kg barley, diet 3 contained 500 g/kg wheat and 200 g/kg barley and diet 4 contained 400 g/kg wheat and 300 g/kg barley. The diets were offered to pigs on three trials to investigate effects on the performance of individually (n
Genetic Diversity of mtDNA D-loop and Maternal Origin of Three Chinese Native Horse Breeds
Zhang, Tao;Lu, Hongzhao;Chen, Chen;Jiang, Hai;Wu, Sanqiao;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 25, iss. 7, 2012, pp. 921-926
In order to protect the genetic resource of native horse breeds, the genetic diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop of three native horse breeds in western China were investigated. Forty-three 600 bp mtDNA D-loop sequences were analyzed by PCR and sequencing techniques, 33 unique haplotypes with 70 polymorphic sites were detected in these horses, which account for 11.67% of 600 bp sequence analyzed, showing the abundant genetic diversity of the three native horse breeds in western China. The Neighbour-Joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree based on 247 bp of 43 D-loop sequences demonstrated the presence of seven major lineages (A to G), indicating that the three native horse breeds in western China originated from multiple maternal origins. Consistent with the front, the NJ phylogenetic tree based on 600 bp of mtDNA D-loop sequences of 43 Chinese western native horses and 81 sequences of six horse breeds from GenBank indicated that the three horse breeds had distributed into the seven major lineages (A to G). The structure of the phylogenic tree is often blurred because the variation in a short segment of the mitochondrial genome is often accompanied by high levels of recurrent mutations. Consequently, longer D-loop sequences are helpful in achieving a higher level of molecular resolution in horses.
Feed Intake, Digestibility, and N Retention in Cattle Fed Rice Straw and Para Grass Combined with Different Levels of Protein Derived from Cassava Foliage
Sath, K.;Sokun, K.;Pauly, T.;Holtenius, K.;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 25, iss. 7, 2012, pp. 956-961
Eight male cattle of Local Yellow breed with an average live weight of 121 kg and an average age of 18 months were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of sun-dried cassava foliage supplementation (Manihot esculenta) on intake, digestibility and N retention. Rice straw ad libitum and para grass (Brachiaria mutica) at 1% DM of BW comprised the basal diet. The study was arranged as a
double Latin square design, with cassava foliage contributing 0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 g CP/kg BW. The cattle selected cassava leaves in preference to petioles. Petiole intake decreased from 64 to 48% of offered petioles when the cassava foliage proportion increased from the lowest to the highest level. The cattle consumed all the leaves at the two lower levels of cassava foliage inclusion and 91% at the highest level. Rice straw intake decreased significantly as the level of cassava foliage increased. Intake of DM, OM, NDF, and ADF increased significantly with increasing intake of cassava foliage. Daily DM intake per 100 kg BW increased from 2.7 to 3.2 kg with increasing cassava foliage intake. No effect on CP digestibility was detected when the level of cassava foliage increased. Digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF was significantly higher in the group fed no cassava foliage than in the other groups. N retention increased from 16 to 28 g/d with the first level of cassava foliage inclusion, but levelled out at the two highest levels. N excretion increased in both faeces and urine as a response to higher intake of cassava foliage. Maximum N retention occurred when 40% of total N intake came from cassava foliage (equivalent to 1.3 g CP/kg BW).
The Effect of Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguarensis) Supplementation on the Productive Performance of Dorper Ewes and Their Progeny
Po, Eleonora;Xu, Ziqian;Celi, Pietro;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 25, iss. 7, 2012, pp. 945-949
Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a tea known for its high antioxidant content, was supplemented to 30 of 60 ewes for 13 wks to assess its effect on their productive performance. A 2.5% inclusion rate of Yerba Mate (YM) in a pelleted concentrate diet decreased feed intake and live weight (LW) during the first few weeks post partum (p<0.001). Overall, the YM group ate less (
) pellet than the control (CTRL) one (
); similarly, LW was lower in the YM group compared to the CTRL one,
, respectively. Lambs` birth weight and growth rates were not affected. At birth, lambs` LW were similar between the Yerba Mate and control groups (
, respectively. At the end of the trial, Yerba Mate lambs weighed
while CTRL lambs weighed
. Average daily growth rate was similar between the two groups and ranged from
. The inclusion of Yerba Mate in a pelleted diet increased milk fat, protein and total solids content while it decreased milk lactose content. Further work is required to investigate the mechanisms by which Yerba Mate supplementation affects feed intake and milk composition.
Genetic Diversity of Myanmar and Indonesia Native Chickens Together with Two Jungle Fowl Species by Using 102 Indels Polymorphisms
Maw, Aye Aye;Shimogiri, Takeshi;Riztyan, Riztyan;Kawabe, Kotaro;Kawamoto, Yasuhiro;Okamoto, Shin;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 25, iss. 7, 2012, pp. 927-934
The efficiency of insertion and/or deletion (indels) polymorphisms as genetic markers was evaluated by genotyping 102 indels loci in native chicken populations from Myanmar and Indonesia as well as Red jungle fowls and Green jungle fowls from Java Island. Out of the 102 indel markers, 97 were polymorphic. The average observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.206 to 0.268 and 0.229 to 0.284 in native chicken populations and 0.003 to 0.101 and 0.012 to 0.078 in jungle fowl populations. The coefficients of genetic differentiation (Gst) of the native chicken populations from Myanmar and Indonesia were 0.041 and 0.098 respectively. The genetic variability is higher among native chicken populations than jungle fowl populations. The high Gst value was found between native chicken populations and jungle fowl populations. Neighbor-joining tree using genetic distance revealed that the native chickens from two countries were genetically close to each other and remote from Red and Green jungle fowls of Java Island.
Differential Expression of Th1- and Th2- Type Cytokines in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) on TLR2 Induction by B. Subtilis Peptidoglycan
Shah, Syed M.;Ravi Kumar, G.V.P.P.S.;Brah, G.S.;Santra, Lakshman;Pawar, Hitesh;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 25, iss. 7, 2012, pp. 1021-1028
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) discriminate microbial pathogens and induce T-cell responses of appropriate effector phenotype accordingly. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), in part, mediate this microbial recognition and differentiation while the development of T-cell effector functions critically depends on the release of Th1- or Th2- type cytokines. In the present study, buffalo PBMCs were stimulated under in vitro culture conditions by Bacillus subtilis cell wall petidoglycan, a TLR2 ligand, in a dose- and time- dependent manner. The expression of TLR2 as well as the subsequent differential induction of the Th1 and Th2 type cytokines was measured. Stimulation was analyzed across five doses of peptidoglycan (
) for 3 h, 12 h, 24 h and 36 h incubation periods. We observed the induction of TLR2 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner and the peptidoglycan induced tolerance beyond
dose at all incubation periods. The correlation between peptidoglycan stimulation and TLR2 induction was found positive at all doses and for all incubation periods. Increased production of all the cytokines was observed at low doses for 3 h incubation, but the expression of IL-4 was relatively higher than IL-12 at the higher antigen doses, indicating tailoring towards Th2 response. At 12 h incubation, there was a pronounced decrease in IL-4 and IL-10 expression relative to IL-12 in a dose- dependent manner, indicating skewing to Th1 polarization. The expression of IL-12 was highest for all doses across all the incubation intervals at 24 h incubation, indicating Th1 polarization. The relative expression of TNF-
was also higher while that of IL-4 and IL-10 showed a decrease. For 36 h incubation, at low doses, relative increase in the expression of IL-4 and IL-10 was observed which decreased at higher doses, as did the expression of all other cytokines. The exhaustion of cytokine production at 36 h indicated that PBMCs became refractory to further stimulation. It can be concluded from this study that the cytokine response to sPGN initially was of Th2 type which skews, more pronouncedly, to Th1 type with time till the cells become refractory to further stimulation.