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The Anatomical Identification-key of Dipasci Asperi Radix, Phlomoidis Radix and Dipsaci Japonici Rad
The Korea Journal of Herbology, vol. 33, iss. 4, 2018, pp. 27-33
Objectives : The roots of Dipsacus asper had been used as the herbal medicine "Cheon-Sokdan" in Korea. Moreover, the roots of Phlomoides umbrosa were used as "Han-Sokdan." In the present study, a comparative anatomical comparison of Cheon-Sokdan, Han-Sokdan, and Ilbon-Sokdan were conducted, because Ilbon-Sokdan, the roots of Dipsacus japonicus, was regarded as substitute of Cheon-Sokdan. Methods : For this study, permanent preparations were made using a paraffin embedding method. Anatomical features of these three Sokdans were observed using a light microscope. Results : The starch grains of parenchyma cells and the amounts of calcium oxalate crystals hardly differed among the three plants. Particularly, the longitudinally-sectioned vessels of the three plants showed a wide variety depending on the focal depth of the light microscope. Therefore, these features could not be considered as obligate criteria for distinguishing these plants. The shape of the xylem was linear in Cheon-Sokdan and Ilbon-Sokdan, whereas that in Han-Sokdan was wedge-shaped. The phloem of Cheon-Sokdan and Ilbon-Sokdan were rhomboid, whereas that of Han-Sokdan was thimble-like. Therefore, the shape of xylem and phloem appeared as good criteria for distinguishing Han-Sokdan from the other plants studied. Cheon-Sokdan and Ilbon-Sokdan showed characteristics similar in many parts. However, in the xylem of Ilbon-Sokdan, fiber bundles were more developed than those of Cheon-Sokdan. Therefore, the development of fiber bundles in xylem was considered suitable for distinguishing between Cheon-Sokdan and Ilbon-Sokdan. Conclusions : The identification-keys established in this study would be helpful for identifying microscopic features among the three Sokdans.
4 Cases of Habitual abortion treated by Jokyungjongok-tang gamibang
Koo, Jin Suk;Seo, Bu Il;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, vol. 33, iss. 4, 2018, pp. 87-93
Objectives : The prevalence of infertility is reported to be 23.3%, which is a serious social problem. Habitual abortion is one of the important complications during pregnancy. The purpose of this study is to help the treatment of habitual abortion by observing and reporting the process in which four women who did not have children due to habitual abortion make healthy birth through treatment. Methods : We administered Jokyungjongok-tang gamibang as a herbal medicine treatment method and treated with acupuncture, moxibustion and uterine steam treatment. Treatment was done once or twice a week but it was also varied depending on the patient`s circumstances. The herbal medicines were taken 30 minutes after meals and 3 times a day. While taking the Korean medicine, they were prohibited from eating flour, pork, liquor, tobacco and coffee. Patient status was assessed by consultation through pulse, tongue and abdomen. A detailed questionnaire was performed for each treatment. In some cases, they have tested hormone levels at the hospitals to know ovulation dates. The diagnosis of pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasonography at hospitals and the treatment for habitual abortion was judged based on healthy birth. Results : As a result of herbal medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion and uterine steam treatment, the coldness of the body became weak, the fatigue decreased and the digestive condition gradually began to improve. The bad condition of the uterus caused by the repeated administration of heritage has been improved with Boheosaenghwa-tang gamibang. After administration of Jokyungjongok-tang gamibang, they became pregnant and overcame the condition of addictive abortion and gave birth to healthy children. Conclusion : Jokyungjongok-tang gamibang is effective in overcoming the symptoms of habitual abortion and giving birth to a healthy child for a woman who had no children due to her habitual abortion
Single oral toxicity test and safety classification for Kaempferia parviflora
Han, Young-Hoon;Park, Yeong-Chul;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, vol. 33, iss. 4, 2018, pp. 53-58
Objectives : Kaempferia parviflora Rhizome is black ginger indigenous to Laos and Thailand. It has been used as a folk medicine to improve blood flow and promote vitality and longevity with good health and well being. For these reasons, Kaempferia parviflora Rhizome has been focused on developing it as a food or food supplement. In addition, Kaempferia parviflora Rhizome could be under consideration of new prescription based on its characteristic compounds, polymethoxyflavonoids. However, it needs to be certified as safe before it can be used. Here, a single-oral toxicity test and safety classification was carried out to identity acute information of the toxicity of Kaempferia parviflora Rhizome powder and to make sure of its safety in clinical applications. Methods : Test substance was orally administered to male and female SD-rat at dose levels of 5000 mg/kg to estimate approximate lethal dose(ALD). Based on the acute information of the toxicity, the safety classification was estimated using the HED(human equivalent dose)-based MOS(margin of safety). Results : At 14 days after treatment with test substance. there were no of test substance related with mortalities and clinical signs. In addition, no changes in the body or organ weights and no gross or histopathological findings were observed. Thus, the ALD of Kaempferia parviflora Rhizome powder was considered over 5,000 mg/kg in both female and male mice. Conclusions : Based on the single oral toxicity test using the highest and limit dose, 5,000 mg/kg and the decision guideline for safety classification based on HED-based MOS, it was estimated that Kaempferia parviflora Rhizome powder is classified as "Specified class B" indicating that clinical dose is not limited to patients as safe as food.
Evaluation on Immunopotentiation Activities of Combined Extract of Silkworm and Cinnamomum cassia in
Kim, Kyeong Jo;Park, Hae Jin;Kim, Il Gyu;Kim, Min Ju;Shin, Mi-Rae;Roh, Seong-Soo;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, vol. 33, iss. 4, 2018, pp. 19-26
Objectives : The aim of this study was to investigate the immunopotentiating activity of combine extract that Silkworm and Cinnamomum cassia. Recently, acute epidemic diseases such as cold and viral respiratory diseases have been emerging. So, interested in immunity enhancement has been increasing, and research on natural products to promote immunity activity has been actively conducted. Methods : To confirm the immunopotentiating activity effect, Silkworm (SW), Cinnamomum cassia (CC), and SWCC combined extracts were treated 14 days at 300 mg/kg/day. The changes of glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT) in serum were analyzed after experiment. The changes in the total spleen cell number were measured. Immune cells in spleen were analyzed using fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS). also, analyzed the expression of cytokines in spleen. Results : Total number of cells in the spleen and FACS analysis of T lymphocytes activated in the spleen showed that the SWCC combined treated group had much higher frequency of active cells than both single groups. The ratio of CD4+CD8+, CD4+CD69+ and CD4+CD25+ T cells in spleen, SWCC is higher than other groups except Nor in CD4+, CD4+CD69+, CD4+CD25+ T cells. The results of this study suggest that SWCC can help immune function via IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-
cytokine production, increased T lymphocytes and splenocyte proliferation. Conclusion : Therefore, these results suggested that the SWCC combined extracts administration increase stronger immunity enhancement than when SW and CC adminstration.
Anti-ulcer effects of HT074 on HCl/EtOH induced gastric injury
Kim, Young-Sik;Park, HyoJin;Song, Jungbin;Lee, Donghun;Kim, Hocheol;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, vol. 33, iss. 4, 2018, pp. 9-18
Objectives : This study aimed to investigate the anti-ulcer effect of an standardized herbal extracts mixture of Inulae Flos and Paeoniae Radix (HT074) on acidified ethanol induced gastric injury and its potential mechanisms. Methods : Antioxidant activities of HT074 and its constituents were measured by DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2`-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging capacity. After the oral administration of HT074 at doses of 100, 300 mg/kg twice per day for 14 days, Gastric lesions were induced by oral administration of acidified ethanol in Sprague Dawley rats. Oxidative stress markers, such as super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity, concentrations of catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) were measured in gastric mucosal tissues. Additionally, the expression of human mucin gene, Mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) mRNA in gastric mucosal tissues was measured. Results : HT074 showed dose dependent radical scavenging activities against DPPH and ABTS radicals. Oral administration of HT074 300 mg/kg for 14 consecutive days significantly decreased gastric lesions and histological damages induced by HCl/EtOH in rats. HT074 treatment significantly increased the activity of SOD (300 mg/kg) and concentration of GSH (100 and 300 mg/kg), however catalase concentration was not significantly increased. MUC5AC mRNA expression was significantly increased by HT074 100, 300 mg/kg treatment. Conclusions : HT074 protects the gastric mucosa from oxidative stress caused by acidified ethanol by increasing the activity of SOD, concentration of GSH and mucin biosynthesis. These findings suggest that HT074 could be an effective candidate for prevention and treatment of gastritis and gastric ulcer.
Effects of Prunellae Spica Extract on LT4-induced Hyperthyroidism in Rats through the Regulation of
Kang, An Na;Kang, Seok Yong;Meng, Xianglong;Ma, Junnan;Park, Jong Hun;Park, Yong-Ki;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, vol. 33, iss. 4, 2018, pp. 77-85
Objective : This study was intended to examine the effects of water extract of Prunellae Spica (PS), which is a herb with `cold` nature based on hot and cold theory of traditional Korean medicine. Methods : Hyperthyroidism was induced in SD rats by LT4 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) daily for four weeks. After 2 weeks of LT4 injection, rats were divided randomly into four groups; normal, LT4-induced hyperthyroid control, PS extract (500 mg/kg, p.o.)-treated group, and propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg/kg, s.c.)-treated positive group. After 2 weeks of drug treatment, all rats were sacrificed and harvested blood samples and thyroid tissues. The changes of body weight, food and water intake, and body temperature were measured weekly. Serological markers were analyzed in sera using an enzyme-based assay, and thyroid tissues were stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E). Brain and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) tissues were isolated and analyzed the expression of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels by Western blot. Results : PS extract administration attenuated the loss of body weight and the increase of body temperature in LT4-induced hyperthyroidism rats. PS extract increased the level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and decreased tiiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4). In action mechanism, PS extract regulated the expression of transient receptor potential channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) and transient Receptor Potential channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8), the thermoregulators. Conclusion : To conclude, PS extract can improve the symptoms of hyperthyroidism through regulation of the thyroid hormones imbalance and thermoregulation via TRP channels.
An External and Micromorphological Identification for Pharbitidis Semen and its Congeneric Species
Song, Jun-Ho;Yang, Sungyu;Choi, Goya;Moon, Byeong Cheol;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, vol. 33, iss. 4, 2018, pp. 43-51
Objectives : Pharbitidis Semen, the seeds of Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth or I. purpurea (L.) Roth, is well-known traditional herbal medicine in Korea. But it is often marketed as a different seed or mixtures of its closely related species. Thus, the present study aims to provide external and micromorphological characters and identification key by using stereoscope (ST) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for discriminating authentic of Pharbitidis Semen. Methods : A discrimination on external morphological characteristics of sepals, fruits, seeds, and hilum, testa cell micromorphology in the original plants and its congeneric species was carried out using digital calipers, ST, and SEM. Results : Number of valves (degree of apex of each valve), number of seeds per locule, hairy in capsules and size, luster, density of hairy, hilum shape in seeds and shape of cell, anticlinal, periclinal wall in testa may have high discriminative value. The seeds of Ipomoea nil as an original plant of Pharbitidis Semen were distinguished from other species by the relative larger in size, ovoid-trigonous in shape, mostly flabellate or triangular to trapezoid in outline (c.s.), dull, and puberulent in surface and thicken anticlinal wall. Conclusions : On the basis of the results, an identification key of Pharbitidis Semen and closely related species is provided. Our observations suggest that the combination of morphological characters and other studied results could be helpful in the successfully identified authentic herbal medicines. Moreover, micromorphological characters using SEM could be useful for discriminating authentic medicines.
Preventive Effects of Pectin Lyase-Modified Red Ginseng Extract on renal injury in db/db mice
Kim, Chan-Sik;Jo, Kyuhyung;Pyo, Mi Kyung;Kim, Jin Sook;Kim, Junghyun;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, vol. 33, iss. 4, 2018, pp. 1-7
Objectives : Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most significant chronic complications of diabetes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been implicated in the development of diabetic nephropathy. GS-E3D is an enzymatic modified red ginseng extract by pectin lyase and has an increased concentration of the ginsenoside Rd compared to an unmodified red ginseng extract. In this study, we evaluated the preventive effects of GS-E3D on renal dysfunction in the type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Methods : GS-E3D (100 or 250 mg/kg body weight per day) was given to db/db mice through oral gavage for 6 weeks. Body weight and blood glucose levels were examined. At the end of the experiment, albuminuria was measured. The renal tissues were collected for histological examination, and immunohistochemical staining was used to detect renal accumulation of AGEs and podocyte loss Results : In the db/db mice, severe hyperglycemia developed, and albuminuria was significantly increased. Diabetes induced markedly morphological alterations to the renal glomerular cells. AGE accumulations and podocyte loss were detected in renal glomeruli. No difference in blood glucose levels was noted between GS-E3D-treated and vehicletreated diabetic db/db mice. However, GS-E3D treatment significantly reduced albuminuria and AGE accumulations in diabetic mice. Moreover, the loss of podocytes was restored by GS-E3D treatment. Conclusions : GS-E3D might be beneficial for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. The ability of GS-E3D on to attenuate albuminuria and podocyte dysfunction in the db/db mice may be mediated by the inhibition of AGE accumulation.
Effects of hexane fraction of Dracocephalum palmatum Stephan leaf on human-derived prostate cancer c
Lee, Min Ji;Lee, Se-Eun;Choi, Na Ri;Jo, Sung Hyeon;Cho, Suin;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, vol. 33, iss. 4, 2018, pp. 69-76
Objectives : Dracocephalum palmatum Stephan (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant used by the East-Russian nomads but there were few studies on this plant. This study was to evaluate anti-cancer effects of D. palmatum Stephan leaf hexane fraction on human derived prostate cancer cell death. Methods : The dried leaves of D. palmatum were dissolved in methanol, and hexane fraction (DpLH) was again obtained from lyophilized methanol extract (DpLM). DpLH was investigated by measuring by MTT assay and annexin V/PI staining to evaluate its effects on the cell viability and apoptosis of PC-3 cells. The ROS generations were detected by DCF-DA dye. The protein expressions were confirmed by p-AKT, Bcl-2, Bax, procaspase-3 activities. Results : After treatment of DpLH to PC-3 cells, the cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, and in addition, DpLH treatment also accelerated apoptosis of PC-3 cells. When DpLH was treated to the PC-3 cells, its ROS production significantly decreased. The proportion of all proteins (p-AKT/actin, Bcl-2/Bax and procaspase-3/actin ratios) showed decreasing tendency of expression compared with the control group. Conclusions : As shown in the above results, the extract from D. palmatum inhibits ROS production and promotes cell death, which is considered to be a relatively safe induction of cell death when administered to a living body. In conclusion, these results suggested that DpLH may have anti-cancer effect in human prostate cancer cell.
Investigation of Antimicrobial and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Hyeonggaeyeongyotang Gagamban
Gang, Seong Gu;Cho, Nam Joon;Kim, Ji Young;Han, Hyo Sang;Kim, Kee Kwang;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, vol. 33, iss. 4, 2018, pp. 35-41
Objectives : Hyeonggaeyeongyotang Gagambang (HYT) is a herbal medicine prescribed for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, but it is necessary to study the exact therapeutic efficacy. This study aims to investigate the antibacterial and anti-inflmmatory activities of HYT. Methods : Antibacterial activity of HYT was confirmed by staining Escherichia coli, a gram negative strain, and Staphylococcus aureus, a gram positive strain, on solid Lysogeny Broth (LB) medium containing HYT. Antioxidant activity of HYT was confirmed by 2,2`-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay. The phosphorylation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (
) after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment with HYT-treated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages cells was confirmed by immunoblot analysis and the level of interleukin 1 beta (IL-
) mRNA expression level was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Results : HYT showed a concentration-dependent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and also showed excellent antioxidant activity. HYT treatment attenuated the phosphorylation of
induced by LPS treatment in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages cells. The phosphorylation of
is crucial for the regulation of the expression of various pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, IL-
mRNA expression level of RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages cells stimulated by LPS treatment was also inhibited by HYT treatment. Conclusions : Through experimental demonstration of the antioxidative, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects of HYT, we demonstrated that HYT is a herbal medicine effective for the treatment of inflammatory diseases caused by various bacterial infections.