- Agriculture, Fishery and Food ＞ Agricultural Engineering/Facilities
Aim & Scope
Animal Bioscience (AB) aims to publish original and cutting-edge research results and reviews on animal-related aspects of the life sciences. Emphasis will be placed on studies involving farm animals such as cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, and poultry. Animal Bioscience will encompass all areas of animal production and fundamental aspects of animal sciences: breeding and genetics, reproduction and physiology, nutrition, dairy and meat science, biotechnology, behavior, health, welfare and livestock farming systems. Animal Bioscience is subdivided into 10 sections. Animal Breeding and Genetics: quantitative and molecular genetics, genomics, genetic evaluation, evolution of domestic animals, and bioinformatics Animal Reproduction and Physiology: physiology of reproduction, development, growth, lactation, and exercise; and gamete biology Ruminant Nutrition and Forage Utilization: rumen microbiology and function, ruminant nutrition, physiology and metabolism, and forage utilization Swine Nutrition and Feed Technology: swine nutrition and physiology; evaluation of feeds, feed additives, and feed processing technology Poultry and Laboratory Animal Nutrition: nutrition and physiology of poultry and other non-ruminant animals Animal Products: dairy and meat science, muscle biology, food safety, food security, and functional foods Animal Biotechnology: molecular nutrition, transgenic animals, identification and manipulation of genes Animal Health: immune modulation, nutritional immunology, infection and immunity, stress responses, vaccines and therapeutics Animal Behavior and Welfare: social and sexual behavior and animal welfare Environment and Management: livestock waste management, livestock and environment, and livestock farming systemhttps://submit.animbiosci.org/ KCI SCIE
Volume 34 Issue 12
Sun, Wei;Li, Yunxia;Su, Jie;Bao, Xiangnan;Ding, Rui;Zhao, Gaoping;Cao, Guifang;Hu, Shuxiang;Wang, Jianguo;Sun, Qingyuan;Yu, Haiquan;Li, Xihe 1879
Objective: Owing to the lack of a breeding index for efficient and quick fertility evaluations of Holstein bulls when using traditional or genome-wide detection methods, this study aimed to determine whether in vitro fertilization (IVF) could be used as an indicator of conception rate of artificial insemination (AI). Methods: Conventional and sexed frozen semen from nine bulls were used for IVF and AI. Results: The IVF and AI conception rates of each bull were confirmed to be positively correlated between the conventional frozen and sexed frozen semen. The correlation coefficient R values of nine bulls between IVF and AI methods were 0.73 and 0.97 for the conventional frozen and sexed frozen semen, respectively. The average conception rate of three bulls undergoing AI was 69.5% and 64.2%, 61.8% and 58.8%, and 48.2% and 46.2% in first-, second-, and third-born cows when conventional frozen and sexed frozen semen were used, respectively, which showed a positive correlation with the fertilization rate in the same parity. We propose an evaluation standard to assess the fertilization ability of bulls based on their IVF test results, which is categorized into three grades: grade one, normal fertility bull with an AI conception rate of 40%±5% and IVF rate of 45% to 60%; grade two, higher fertility bull with an AI conception rate of 50%±5% and IVF rate of 61% to 80%; and grade three, highest fertility bull with an AI conception rate of 60%±5% and IVF rate of >80%. Conclusion: These findings reveal that IVF results can be used as a breeding index for bulls to evaluate their AI conception ability, which may shorten the time required to select bulls for breeding.
Association of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I genotype with body weight, dominance of body weight, and mRNA expression in Korat slow-growing chickensSinpru, Panpradub;Bunnom, Rujjira;Poompramun, Chotima;Kaewsatuan, Pramin;Sornsan, Sirangkun;Kubota, Satoshi;Molee, Wittawat;Molee, Amonrat 1886
Objective: Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) play a critical role in animal growth rates. We aimed to investigate the effect of GH and IGF-I genotypes on body weight (BW), dominance, and gene expression in slow-growing chickens at different ages. Methods: A total of 613 Korat chickens (KRs) were bred and divided into three groups by genotype - A1A1, A1A3, and A3A3 for GH and AA, AC, and CC for IGF-I. Chickens were weighed every two weeks, and liver and breast muscle tissues were collected at 10 weeks of age. Genetic parameters of KRs were estimated using ASReml software. The GH and IGF-I mRNA levels were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Significant differences between traits were analyzed using the generalized linear model. Results: A significant effect of GH genotypes on BW was found at most ages, and the A1A1 genotype had the highest value of BW. Compared with the A3A3 genotype, the A1A1 and A1A3 genotypes showed a higher dominance effect at 0 and 2 weeks, and genotype A1A1 had the highest value of dominance at 8 weeks of age. A difference in GH mRNA levels between genotypes was detected in breast muscle at 6 weeks and in the liver tissue at 2 weeks. In the case of IGF-I gene, the AA genotype had the highest BW at the beginning of life. Significant differences in BW dominance were found at 2 weeks. However, IGF-I mRNA levels were not different among genotypes in both breast muscles and liver tissues. Conclusion: Our results revealed that GH and IGF-I influence growth, but may not be involved in heterosis. GH can be used as a marker gene in selection programs for growth because the homozygous genotype (A1A1) had the highest BW at all ages. The IGF-I is not a useful marker gene for selection programs.
Wu, Xudong;Zhou, Ren;Zhang, Wei;Cao, Bangji;Xia, Jing;Wang, Caiyun;Zhang, Xiaodong;Chu, Mingxing;Yin, Zongjun;Ding, Yueyun 1895
Objective: Runs of homozygosity (ROH) are contiguous lengths of homozygous genotypes that can reveal inbreeding levels, selection pressure, and mating schemes. In this study, ROHs were evaluated in Wannan Black pigs to assess the inbreeding levels and the genome regions with high ROH frequency. Methods: In a previous study, we obtained 501.52 GB of raw data from resequencing (10×) of the genome and identified 21,316,754 single-nucleotide variants in 20 Wannan Black pig samples. We investigated the number, length, and frequency of ROH using resequencing data to characterize the homozygosity in Wannan Black pigs and identified genomic regions with high ROH frequencies. Results: In this work, 1,813 ROHs (837 ROHs in 100 to 500 kb, 449 ROHs in 500 to 1,000 kb, 527 ROHs in >1,000 kb) were identified in all samples, and the average genomic inbreeding coefficient (FROH) in Wannan Black pigs was 0.5234. Sixty-one regions on chromosomes 2, 3, 7, 8, 13, 15, and 16 harbored ROH islands. In total, 105 genes were identified in 42 ROH islands, among which some genes were related to production traits. Conclusion: This is the first study to identify ROH across the genome of Wannan Black pigs, the Chinese native breed of the Anhui province. Overall, Wannan Black pigs have high levels of inbreeding due to the influence of ancient and recent inbreeding due to the genome. These findings are a reliable resource for future studies and contribute to save and use the germplasm resources of Wannan Black pigs.
Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters and various litter trait trends of Danish pigs in South Vietnam, including the number born alive (NBA), number weaned (NW), and litter weight at the 21st day (LW21). Methods: Records of 936 Yorkshire sows with 3361 litters and 973 Landrace sows with 3161 litters were used to estimate the variance components, genetic parameters, and trends of NBA, NW, and LW21. The restricted maximum likelihood method was applied using VCE6 software to obtain the variance components and genetic parameters. Thereafter, the best linear unbiased prediction procedure with an animal model was applied using PEST software to estimate the breeding values of the studied traits. Results: The heritability estimates were low, ranging from 0.12 to 0.21 for NBA, 0.03 to 0.04 for NW, and from 0.11 to 0.13 for LW21. The genetic correlation between the NBA and NW was relatively strong in both breeds, at 0.77 and 0.60 for Yorkshire and Landrace, respectively. Similarly, the genetic correlation between the NW and LW21 was considerably stronger in Landrace pigs (0.71) than in Yorkshire pigs (0.48). The estimates of annual genetic progress were 0.0431, 0.0233, and 0.0461 for NBA, NW, and LW21 in Landrace pigs and 0434, 0.0202, and 0.0667 for NBA, NW, and LW21 in Yorkshire pigs, respectively. Conclusion: The positive genetic trends estimated for the additive genetic values of the selected traits indicated that the current breeding system has achieved favorable results.
Taniguchi, Shin;Zhu, Zhendong;Matsuzaki, Mei;Tsudzuki, Masaoki;Maeda, Teruo 1912
Objective: This study investigated the effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) on the motility parameters, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and ATP levels in chicken sperm. Methods: The pooled semen from Barred Plymouth Rock males was used. In the first experiment, the semen was diluted 4-times with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS (-)) containing various concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 mM) of 5-ALA, and then the sperm motility parameters after incubation were evaluated by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). In the second experiment, the semen was diluted 4-times with PBS (-) containing 0.05 mM 5-ALA, and then sperm mitochondrial membrane depolarization and ATP levels after 1.5 h of incubation were analyzed with the MitoPT® JC-1 Assay and ATP Assay kits, respectively. In the third experiment, the semen was removed from the seminal plasma and resuspended with the mediums of PBS (-), PBS (-) supplemented with CaCl2 and MgCl2 (PBS (+)) + 5-ALA, PBS (+) + caffeine, and PBS (+) + caffeine + 5-ALA. Then, the sperm motility parameters after incubation were evaluated by CASA. In the last experiment, the semen was treated with the mediums of PBS (-), PBS (-) + 5-ALA, 5.7% glucose, 5.7% glucose + 5-ALA after removing the seminal plasma, and then the sperm motility parameters were evaluated by CASA. Results: The addition of 0.05 mM 5-ALA significantly increased the chicken sperm motility, progressive motility, linearity, average path velocity, curvilinear velocity, straight-line velocity, and the wobble. The sperm mitochondrial membrane depolarization was also increased by the 5-ALA treatment. The 5-ALA treatment decreased the sperm ATP levels. Both the caffeine treatment and glucose treatment decreased the sperm motility during incubation period. Conclusion: 5-ALA might increase sperm mitochondrial membrane depolarization to utilize the ATP for enhancing sperm movement.
Characterization of the bacterial microbiota across the different intestinal segments of the Qinghai semi-fine wool sheep on the Qinghai-Tibetan PlateauWang, Xungang;Hu, Linyong;Liu, Hongjin;Xu, Tianwei;Zhao, Na;Zhang, Xiaoling;Geng, Yuanyue;Kang, Shengping;Xu, Shixiao 1921
Objective: The intestinal microbiota enhances nutrient absorption in the host and thus promotes heath. Qinghai semi-fine wool sheep is an important livestock raised in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau; however, little is known about the bacterial microbiota of its intestinal tract. The aim of this study was to detect the microbial characterization in the intestinal tract of the Qinghai semi-fine wool sheep. Methods: The bacterial profiles of the six different intestinal segments (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) of Qinghai semi-fine wool sheep were studied using 16S rRNA V3-V4 hypervariable amplicon sequencing. Results: A total of 2,623,323 effective sequences were obtained, and 441 OTUs shared all six intestinal segments. The bacterial diversity was significantly different among the different intestinal segments, and the large intestine exhibited higher bacterial diversity than the small intestine. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Patescibacteria were the dominant phyla in these bacterial communities. Additionally, at the genus level, Prevotella_1, Candidatus_Saccharimonas, and Ruminococcaceae_UCG-005 were the most predominant genus in duodenal segment, jejunal and ileal segments, and cecal, colonic, and rectal segments, respectively. We predicted that the microbial functions and the relative abundance of the genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were overrepresented in the intestinal segments of Qinghai semi-fine wool sheep. Conclusion: The bacterial communities and functions differed among different intestinal segments. Our study is the first to provide insights into the composition and biological functions of the intestinal microbiota of Qinghai semi-fine wool sheep. Our results also provide useful information for the nutritional regulation and production development in Qinghai semi-fine wool sheep.
Metabolomics comparison of serum and urine in dairy cattle using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopyEom, Jun Sik;Kim, Eun Tae;Kim, Hyun Sang;Choi, You Young;Lee, Shin Ja;Lee, Sang Suk;Kim, Seon Ho;Lee, Sung Sill 1930
Objective: The aim of the study was to conduct metabolic profiling of dairy cattle serum and urine using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy and to compare the results obtained with those of other dairy cattle herds worldwide so as to provide a basic dataset to facilitate research on metabolites in serum and urine. Methods: Six dairy cattle were used in this study; all animals were fed the same diet, which was composed of total mixed ration; the fed amounts were based on voluntary intake. Blood from the jugular neck vein of each steer was collected at the same time using a separate serum tube. Urine samples were collected by hand sweeping the perineum. The metabolites were determined by 1H-NMR spectroscopy, and the obtained data were statistically analyzed by performing principal component analysis, partial least squares-discriminant analysis, variable importance in projection scores, and metabolic pathway data using Metaboanalyst 4.0. Results: The total number of metabolites in the serum and urine was measured to be 115 and 193, respectively, of which 47 and 81, respectively were quantified. Lactate (classified as an organic acid) and urea (classified as an aliphatic acylic compound) exhibited the highest concentrations in serum and urine, respectively. Some metabolites that have been associated with diseases such as ketosis, bovine respiratory disease, and metritis, and metabolites associated with heat stress were also found in the serum and urine samples. Conclusion: The metabolites measured in the serum and urine could potentially be used to detect diseases and heat stress in dairy cattle. The results could also be useful for metabolomic research on the serum and urine of ruminants in Korea.
Effects of maize straw treated with various levels of CaO and moisture on composition, structure, and digestion by in vitro gas productionShi, Mingjun;Ma, Zhanxia;Tian, Yujia;Zhang, Xuewei;Shan, Huiyong 1940
Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the effects of maize straw treated with calcium oxide (CaO) and various moisture, on the composition and molecular structure of the fiber, and gas production by fermentation in an in vitro rumen environment. Methods: The experiment used 4×3 Factorial treatment. Maize straws were treated with 4 concentrations of CaO (0%, 3%, 5%, and 7% of dry straw weight) and 3 moisture contents (40%, 50%, and 60%). Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy were employed to measure the surface texture, secondary molecular structure of carbohydrate, and calcium (Ca) content of the maize straw, respectively. The correlation of secondary molecular structures and fiber components of maize straw were analyzed by CORR procedure of SAS 9.2. In vitro rumen fermentation was performed for 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h to measure gas production. Results: Overall, the moisture factor had no obvious effect on the experimental results. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose contents decreased (p<0.05) with increasing concentrations of CaO treatment. Surface and secondary molecular structure of maize straw were affected by various CaO and moisture treatments. NDF had positive correlation (p<0.01) with Cell-H (H, height), Cell-A (A, area), CHO-2-H. Hemicellulose had positive correlation (p<0.01) with Lignin-H, Lignin-A, Cell-H, Cell-A. Ca content of maize straw increased as the concentration of CaO was increased (p<0.01). Gas production was highest in the group treated with 7% CaO. Conclusion: CaO can adhere to the surface of the maize straw, and then improve the digestibility of the maize straw in ruminants by modifying the structure of lignocellulose and facilitating the maize straw for microbial degradation.
Growth performance, carcass traits and gut health of broiler chickens fed diets incorporated with single cell proteinHombegowda, Gangavadi P.;Suresh, Bypanahalli N.;Shivakumar, Mysore C.;Ravikumar, Puttamallappa;Girish, Bekkere C.;Rudrappa, Satturu M.;Indresh, Huchamanadoddi C. 1951
Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate single cell protein (SCP), produced from Methylococcus species, as a protein source on the growth performance, carcass traits and gut health of broiler chickens. Methods: Ten iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets containing 0 (Control), 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% SCP replacing either soybean meal (T1 to T5) or fish meal (T6 to T10) were formulated. Each diet prepared for starter (0 to 14 days), grower (15 to 21 days), and finisher (22 to 42 days) phases was offered to four replicates of 10 chicks each (n = 400). Growth performance at different phases and carcass characteristics and intestinal morphology on 42nd day of trial were measured. Results: Body weight gain in groups fed 2.5% and 5% SCP diets were comparable to control during different phases and cumulatively, however lower (p<0.01) in 7.5% and 10% SCP diets. Feed conversion ratio was better (p<0.01) in 2.5% and 5% SCP diets. Dressing percentage, abdominal fat percentage and meat:bone ratio were not affected (p>0.05) by SCP inclusion in the diets. However, breast percentage was higher (p<0.01) in 2.5% and 5% SCP groups and thigh percentage higher in 7.5% and 10% SCP groups. Total microbial count in duodenum, jejunum and ileum were not affected (p>0.05) by SCP inclusion up to 10% in diets. Duodenal villi length and crypt depth were highest (p<0.01) in group fed 5% SCP diets and lowest in group fed 10% SCP diets. Jejunal villi length and crypt depth as well as ileal villi length were lowest (p<0.01) in group fed 10% SCP diets. Body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and gut health were better (p<0.01) in broilers fed fish meal based diets compared to soybean meal based diets. Conclusion: It was concluded that inclusion of SCP up to 5% replacing soybean meal in broiler diets is beneficial in improving growth rate, breast yield and gut health status.
Effects of dietary L-glutamine and glutamic acid combination, and whey powder on the performance and nutrient digestion in weaned piglets fed grain-based dietsAlmeida, Jonathan Madson dos Santos;Pascoal, Leonardo Augusto Fonseca;de Almeida, Jorge Luiz Santos;Guerra, Ricardo Romao;da Silva, Jose Humberto Vilar;da Silva, David Rwbystanne Pereira;Neto, Manoel Rosa Silva;Martins, Terezinha Domiciano Dantas 1963
Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of including L-glutamine along with glutamic acid as a supplement in weaned piglets' diets with and without whey powder. Methods: Two assays were carried out. A total of 40 piglets ([Landrace×Large White]×Pietrain) weaned at 24 days of age with an initial body weight of 6.6±0.6 kg were used in the first assay, and the following parameters were evaluated: growth performance, the incidence of diarrhea, morphometry, intestinal integrity, and hepatic glycogen index. The animals were then blocked into four groups according to different diets: diet all-grain feeding (G); diet all-grain feeding with whey powder (GW); and with vs without 1% supplementation of the commercial product containing L-glutamine and glutamic acid (A or NA). Whey powder was added according to the stage of life, corresponding to 17%, 10%, and 5%, respectively, in order to meet the need for lactose. The animals were evaluated at 24 to 42 days and at 24 to 55 days of age. The nutrient digestibility for the second assay was carried out by using 24 animals with an average weight of 11.49±1.6 kg, and the same diets were tested. Results: The supplementation of L-glutamine + glutamic acid or the addition of whey powder in diets for weaned piglets provided (p<0.05) greater feed intake, greater weight gain and improved feed conversion in the initial period (24 to 42 days age). However, in the whole period (24 to 55 days age) only amino acid supplementation affected (p<0.05) growth performance. There was a positive interaction (p<0.05) between the type of diet and L-glutamine + glutamic acid supplementation on villus height, crypt depth and the villus:crypt ratio in the duodenum. In addition, L-glutamine + glutamic acid supplementation reduced (p<0.05) the crypt depth and improved the villus:crypt ratio in the jejunum. The inclusion of whey powder affected (p<0.05) positively the digestibility coefficients analyzed except mineral matter digestibility coeficients. The supplementation of 1% the commercial product composed of L-glutamine and glutamic acid improved (p<0.05) only the digestibility coefficient of crude protein. Conclusion: These results indicate that supplementation of 1% commercial product containing L-glutamine + glutamic acid in diets for piglets from 24 to 55 days of age, dispenses with the use of whey powder when evaluating growth performance. Amino acid supplementation alone or associated with whey powder affects (p<0.05) positively the indicators of the intestinal integrity.
Jang, Jae Cheol;Kim, Dong Hyuk;Jang, Young Dal;Kim, Yoo Yong 1974
Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in growing pigs fed diets containing increasing levels of copra meal (CM) with β-mannanase supplementation. Methods: Twenty barrows (initial body weight: 34.43±0.11 kg) surgically fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum were individually housed in metabolism crates. Pigs were allotted to 5 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with 4 replicates per treatment. The dietary treatments were: i) NC, negative control, corn-soybean meal (SBM) based diet, ii) PC, positive control, basal diet + 0.10% β-mannanase supplementation (800 IU/kg), iii) CM6, PC diet with 6% CM supplementation, iv) CM12, PC diet with 12% CM supplementation, and v) CM18, PC diet with 18% CM supplementation. A nitrogen-free diet was used to estimate basal endogenous losses of AA for SID calculation. All experimental diets contained 0.5% chromic oxide as an indigestible marker. Each period consisted of a 4-d diet adaptation period and a 3-d ileal digesta collection period. Results: There were no differences in apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and SID of all AA between the NC and PC treatments except that the PC treatment had lower AID and SID of glycine than the NC treatment (p<0.05). There were linear decreases in AID and SID of lysine (p<0.05) and aspartic acid (p = 0.06; tendency) with increasing levels of CM in the diets with β-mannanase. Conclusion: The β-mannanase supplementation had no effect on AA digestibility in pigs fed the corn-SBM based diet but increasing levels of CM reduced SID of lysine and aspartic acid.
Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza aerial parts on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and digestive enzymes in rabbitsObjective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza (S.m.) aerial parts as an alternative ingredient on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and digestive enzymes in growing rabbits. Methods: Treatments included five tested diets: a control (basal diet), antibiotic (basal diet+enramycin at 5 mg/kg), and S.m. aerial parts powder added at 3.0%, 6.0%, and 9.0% of feed using 300 growing rabbits. Results: The diets with S.m. aerial parts addition at 9.0% decreased (p<0.05) feed/gain compared to the control, but there were no differences in feed intake and body weight gain. In contrast with the control, the addition of antibiotic increased (p<0.05) digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, energy, fiber, and ash. The herb addition did not cause differences in the digestibility of most nutrients compared to the antibiotic, but fiber digestibility of the herb at 6.0% and 9.0% was lower (p<0.05) than that of the antibiotic. Moreover, the antibiotic and the herb also similarly increased (p<0.05) the activities of duodenal α-amylase, maltase, lipase, and trypsin, compared to the control, and the herb at 6.0% and 9.0% showed a greater (p<0.05) activity of elastase than the dose 3.0%. Conclusion: The obtained data indicate that S.m. aerial parts can be a potential forage in rabbit's diet at 9.0% with a beneficial regulation on nutrition and digestion.
Effect of increasing levels of threonine relative to lysine on the performance and meat quality of finishing pigsUpadhaya, Santi Devi;Lee, Sang Seon;Jin, Sung Giu;Wu, Zhenlong;Kim, In Ho 1987
Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of varying standardized ileal digestible lysine:threonine (SID Lys:Thr) ratio in the diet on the performance and meat quality of finishing pigs. Methods: In total 192 crossbred pigs ([Landrace×Yorkshire]×Duroc, 17 weeks old), with an initial body weight (BW) of 70.6±3.9 kg were used in an 8-wk trial. Pigs were randomly allotted to one of six dietary treatments based on their initial BW and sex (8 replications; 4 pigs per pen, 2 barrows and 2 gilts). The pigs in the 6 treatments were fed diets having different SID Lys:Thr ratios such as 1:0.65, 1:0.66, 1:0.67, 1:0.68, 1:0.69, and 1:0.70. Results: A linear increment (p<0.05) in average daily gain (ADG) and trends in reduction in feed conversion ratio (FCR) were observed during day 29 to 56 of the experiment and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter tended to increase linearly (p = 0.094) at the end of the experiment (day 56) with the increase in the dietary SID Lys:Thr ratios. The backfat thickness and lean percentage increased (linear effect, p<0.05) on day 28. In addition, at day 56, a linear (p<0.05) increment in lean percentage was observed. Significant quadratic responses (p = 0.02) for pH and drip loss at day 7 (p = 0.02), a linear increase (p<0.05) in cooking loss and drip loss at day 7, and a trend in quadratic response (p = 0.07) in the lightness of meat color (L*) were observed, whereas other meat quality indices were unaffected by varying the SID Lys:Thr ratios. Conclusion: The SID Lys:Thr ratio for maximum ADG, minimum FCR and enhanced digestibility was found to be 0.70. However, for carcass trait and meat quality, the SID Lys:Thr ratio of 0.65 was enough.
Sequential use of real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques verifies adulteration of fermented sausages with chicken meatObjective: Detection of adulteration in processed meats is an important issue for some countries due to substitution of beef with a cheaper source of protein like poultry. In this study, the presence of chicken meat was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques to verify adulteration of fermented sausage samples. Methods: A total of 60 commercial samples were collected from 20 establishments in three replicates including 10 fermented sausage manufacturers and 10 butchers to investigate the presence of chicken meat with the sequential use of real-time PCR and ELISA techniques. In addition, pH, moisture content, water activity and color values of the samples were determined. Results: Both real-time PCR and ELISA showed agreement on the presence or absence of chicken meat in 55 out of 60 fermented sausage samples and chicken meat was identified with both methods in 16 samples. Five samples produced inconsistent results for the presence of chicken meat in the first run. Nevertheless, the presence of chicken meat was verified with both methods when these samples were analyzed for the second time. In addition, the average physico-chemical values of the fermented sausage samples tested positive for chicken meat were not significantly different from some of those fermented sausage samples tested negative for the chicken meat. Conclusion: The sequential use of real-time PCR and ELISA techniques in fermented sausages could be beneficial for the government testing programs to eliminate false negatives for detection of adulteration with chicken meat. Furthermore, consumers should not rely on some of the quality cues including color to predict the adulteration of fermented sausages with chicken meat since there were no statistical differences among some of the samples tested positive and negative for chicken meat.
Assessment of technological characteristics and microbiological quality of marinated turkey meat with the use of dairy products and lemon juiceAugustynska-Prejsnar, Anna;Hanus, Pawel;Sokolowicz, Zofia;Kacaniova, Miroslava 2003
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of marinating turkey meat with buttermilk and acid whey on the technological traits and microbiological quality of the product. Methods: Slices of turkey meat muscles were marinated for 12 hours in buttermilk (n = 30), acid whey (n = 30) and comparatively, in lemon juice (n = 30). The control group (n = 30) consisted of unmarinated slices of turkey breast muscles. Physical parameters (pH, water holding capacity, colour L*a*b*, shear force, weight loss) were assessed and quantitative and qualitative microbiological evaluation of raw and roasted products was performed. The microbiological parameters were determined as the total viable counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, of the Enterobacteriaceae family, and Pseudomonas spp. Bacterial identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Results: Marinating turkey meat in buttermilk and whey compared to marinating in lemon juice and the control sample resulted in a higher (p<0.05) degree of yellow color saturation (b*) and a reduction (p<0.05) in the number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae family as well as the number of identified mesophilic aerobic bacteria in both raw and roasted samples. The lowest (p<0.05) shear force values were found in products marinated in whey. Conclusion: The use of buttermilk and acid whey as a marinade for meat increases the microbiological safety of the product compared to marinating in lemon juice, while maintaining good technological features of the product.
A study on shelf life of prepackaged retail-ready Korean native black pork belly and shoulder butt slices during refrigerated displayHoa, Van-Ba;Seol, Kuk-Hwan;Kang, Sun-Moon;Kim, Yun-Seok;Cho, Soo-Hyun 2012
Objective: In most retail centers, primal pork cuts for sale are usually prepared into retail-ready slices and overwrapped with air-permeable plastic film. Also, meat of Korean native black pig (KNP) is reputed for its superior quality, however, its shelf life during retail display has not been studied. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate shelf life of prepackaged retail-ready KNP belly and shoulder butt slices during refrigerated display. Methods: Bellies and shoulder butt obtained at 24 h post-mortem from finishing KNP were used. Each belly or shoulder butt was manually cut into 1.5 cm-thick slices. The slices in each cut type were randomly taken and placed on white foam tray (2 slices/tray) overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride film. The retail-ready packages were then placed in a retail display cabinet at 4℃. Shelf life and sensory quality of the samples were evaluated on day 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 of display. Results: The shoulder butt reached the upper limit (20 mg/100 g) of volatile basic nitrogen for fresh meat after 9 days while, the belly remained within this limit throughout the display time (15 days). Both the cuts reached a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level of above 0.5 mg malondialdehyde/kg after 9 days. The a* (redness) values remained unchanged during first 9 days in both cuts (p>0.05). After 9 days, off-flavor was not found in either cut, but higher off-flavor intensity was found in shoulder butt after 12 days. The shoulder butt was unacceptable for overall eating quality after 12 days while, belly still was acceptable after 12 days. Conclusion: The belly showed a longer shelf life compared to the shoulder butt, and a shelf life of 9 and 12 days is recommended for the prepackaged retail-ready KNP shoulder butt and belly slices, respectively.
Urease and nitrification inhibitors with pig slurry effects on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions, nitrate leaching, and nitrogen use efficiency in perennial ryegrass swardObjective: The present study was conducted to assess the effect of urease inhibitor (hydroquinone [HQ]) and nitrification inhibitor (dicyandiamide [DCD]) on nitrogen (N) use efficiency of pig slurry for perennial ryegrass regrowth yield and its environmental impacts. Methods: A micro-plot experiment was conducted using pig slurry-urea 15N treated with HQ and/or DCD and applied at a rate of 200 kg N/ha. The flows of N derived from the pig slurry urea to herbage regrowth and soils as well as soil N mineralization were estimated by tracing pig slurry-urea 15N, and the N losses via ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, and nitrate (NO3-) leaching were quantified for a 56 d regrowth of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) sward. Results: Herbage dry matter at the final regrowth at 56 d was significantly higher in the HQ and/or DCD applied plots, with a 24.5% to 42.2% increase in 15N recovery by herbage compared with the control. Significant increases in soil 15N recovery were also observed in the plots applied with the inhibitors, accompanied by the increased N content converted to soil inorganic N (NH4++NO3-) (17.3% to 28.8% higher than that of the control). The estimated loss, which was not accounted for in the herbage-soil system, was lower in the plots applied with the inhibitors (25.6% on average) than that of control (38.0%). Positive effects of urease and/or nitrification inhibitors on reducing N losses to the environment were observed at the final regrowth (56 d), at which cumulative NH3 emission was reduced by 26.8% (on average 3 inhibitor treatments), N2O emission by 50.2% and NO3- leaching by 10.6% compared to those of the control. Conclusion: The proper application of urease and nitrification inhibitors would be an efficient strategy to improve the N use efficiency of pig slurry while mitigating hazardous environmental impacts.